Extract from the report of the Ministry of Defence period 1 April 1982 to 31 March 1983
The essential elements of this Government’s defence policies are: first, the maintenance of effective and professional, if small, armed forces; second, securing the widest possible coverage of our strategic and security interests, through a combination of our own efforts and alliance relationships; third, facing the realities of an armed and in particular a nuclear armed world in which the central element is the concept of deterrence between the 2 superpowers; finally, seeking to strike the correct balance between what New Zealand can afford in defence with what is necessary to secure our many, wide-ranging national interests.
A re-examination of our Defence policies is in train, against this background. I intend that it be published by the end of 1983. In the process we must consider both the global and the regional issues which provide the strategic setting for New Zealand. It is a truism now that the world is unstable and violent. Economic issues, such as international liquidity problems, fluctuating oil prices, and protectionism add seriously to the stresses on global systems. Inaction promises chaos and heightens the risk of conflict. On the strategic front a continuing growth in the ability of the U.S.S.R. to project forces into the Pacific, marked particularly by development of bases in Vietnam, must be of particular concern. Vietnam’s colonisation of Kampuchea proceeds, as does the Soviet Union’s effort to subjugate Afghanistan. There is open war in the Persian Gulf, and instability is high elsewhere in the Middle East, particularly in Lebanon. In Central America guerilla warfare and political opportunism are combining to undermine attempts to build better-based societies. The concept of détente between the superpowers has been replaced by new tensions. In Europe Poland continues to be under stress. Elsewhere very real anxieties have been generated about basing arrangements for expanding nuclear arsenals.
None of these things, fortunately, represents a direct threat to New Zealand nor for that matter to any state in our relatively remote part of the South Pacific. Our sovereignty and independence are not imminently at risk. Despite many attempts to raise alarm and confusion here about the risks of nuclear attack, New Zealand offers no such targets. This applies whether or not U.S. Navy vessels are visiting. For as I said last year— the type of vessel which comes here does not carry the sort of strategic weapons able to attack the Soviet Union. Some talk about the nuclear umbrella is itself constituting a magnet for attack. But there is no question of struts of that umbrella being located in New Zealand or elsewhere in the South Pacific.
The reality is that New Zealand has always been a ‘nuclear weapons-free zone’. That fact was given verbal expression 20 years ago when then Prime Minister Holyoake said “New Zealand has no nuclear weapons. We have no intention of acquiring any, and there are no nuclear bases on New Zealand territory”, and was confirmed in 1968 by our signature to the Non Proliferation Treaty under which we formally disavow the acquisition or storage of nuclear weapons.
The defence of New Zealand is however not solely a matter of whether or not we could be exposed to nuclear attack. Conventional threats, pressure from outside powers on the region in which we live are also possibilities we must consider. Effectively to safeguard our interests requires us to look beyond defence or immediate sovereignty and independence. Prosperity is also a key to life above the level of mere survival. So is the preservation of stability and security in the region around us. Our prosperity rests upon trade. For New Zealand that trade depends on the security of our lines of communication and the continued growth in stability and economic well-being of neighbouring countries of the Pacific Basin. We may be a small and isolated country but we have wide-ranging interests especially as our trade-links are diversified.
In New Zealand’s case it is right that we should focus our efforts on our own region. Yet even to cover all possible threats to the security of New Zealand, let alone to the immediate South Pacific region would be beyond our resources. To attempt to secure our worldwide interests unaided would be absurd. What we can and should do is establish our own forces accordingly. We should also recognise that there is a confluence of our interests with those of our friends and partners from which our partnerships and alliances naturally arise. An alliance is not simply something which is conjured up, for the purpose of signing a treaty. The coincidence of our security interests in the Pacific with those of Australia and the United States had been obvious for at least 10 years before ANZUS was formally concluded. There is no justification whatsoever for fears that such linkages lead to subordination. To be sure New Zealand will be a smaller partner, but the more capable we are seen to be particularly within our own region, the more we will be listened to with respect by our allied partners. The more solid our contribution the greater our opportunities to air independent and sovereign points of view.
It is chiefly in this connection that I must record some disappointment over the response to my call, in last year’s Report, for debate about Defence. It has brought forth propositions of withdrawal, neutralism, or non-alignment which bear little relationship to the facts of life for New Zealanders. It seems to be thought such things can be achieved by proclamation, or in ways which would somehow confer upon New Zealand a new ability to influence the course of world events. But nations must work for such influence. It springs too from recognition that the point of view represented reflects a solid history of commitment, not an ephemeral political opportunism. There seems to be some unwillingness to face such hard realities. Neutrality means to most people armed neutrality after certain European models. But I see no evidence of analysis of what this would cost in terms of resources, nor study of the implications for New Zealand’s place in the world. Rather the thought seems to be that neutrality would somehow provide a cocoon immune from the ebb and flow of fortunes elsewhere, and impenetrable by overt aggression. The true European neutrals make no such dangerous assumptions. I conclude that such propositions are based upon hopes and fears rather than upon objectivity. Our history and the strategic and economic facts all show that we cannot opt out, even if we so wished. The world is now interdependent. We in turn must look to working with others to apply practical measures to contain and reduce the pressures and risks. ANZUS in particular gives us exceptional scope for access to the 2 countries most important to us, Australia and the United States. Our relationships with South Pacific and South-east Asian countries similarly help us make contributions of solid worth, rather than sermons from the sidelines. Our development as a nation has been based upon this willingness to play our part and to make a sound and sensible contribution. Anything else would be out of character. . We cannot pretend however whatever approach we adopt that there is any escape from the burden of defence. For an economy which can provide little of the industrial infrastructure for defence, the costs in overseas exchange of acquiring and maintaining even reasonably up-to-date military equipment are nigh. In our current re-examination we must assume that the resources which the country can afford for defence are unlikely to increase markedly in the period ahead. In the past when New Zealand has had to act to meet a common danger heavy demands have been made and accepted. In current circumstances it seems more important to build up and diversify our economy than to place a disproportionate burden on it for defence purposes.
There is however one lesson which does emerge dearly from the events of the past year. Britain faced the unexpected in the South Atlantic and, among other things, learned that combat readiness is the key to a successful defence policy. Britain was obliged to adapt and deploy existing forces to meet the emergency. The unexpected as so often in history proved to be what happened. Because attack was not assessed as likely the deterrence efforts made were insufficient and it was necessary to fight to regain territory previously held. So in New Zealand we must seek to deter any attack by demonstrating that our forces though small are effective, fully trained, and appropriately equipped. Moreover we can and must through our alliance policies also show that our interests and commitments are shared. In this way the range of options able to be covered by a small country can be extended.
The conclusions for New Zealand are clear. We cannot afford forces which are large or equipped for all contingencies, particularly those involving the highest levels of military technology. Nor can we count upon being able to conjure them up as and when a threat develops. What we must do is ensure that we have forces which strive for excellence with equipment we can afford, and are able to make a meaningful contribution to regional security interests we share with our partners.
Some restructuring of the defence forces may be needed. There will be no question however of making changes simply for changes sake. Rather the aim will be, working within realistic budgetary levels, to equip and train professional forces able to react promptly and effectively to threats to national security. New Zealand is not some abstract entity but a nation firmly based in the South Pacific with solid national interests to uphold in the region around us. We must have armed forces tailored to meet that requirement, seen and understood by the community at large as an integral and important part of our society.
INTERNATIONAL DEFENCE RELATIONSHIPS
For more than 3 decades the ANZUS Treaty has provided the ultimate guarantee of security in our region and it continues to do so. It is a unique relationship between 2 regional countries and a superpower, nations disparate in size and strength but sharing ‘basic cultural, political, and strategic commitments. New Zealand’s defence efforts in our own region are at the heart of our contribution to the alliance. ANZUS however also provides training and exercising opportunities which are fundamental to the maintenance of the professional skills of the New Zealand Armed Forces.
In the communiqué issued at the end of the thirty-first annual meeting of the ANZUS Council held in Canberra in June 1982 Ministers reaffirmed their strong commitment to the ANZUS Treaty and expressed satisfaction with the level of military co-operation established among the partners. In particular they confirmed the high priority each partner placed upon a regular and comprehensive programme of Naval visits to each other’s ports, as well as to friendly ports in the Asia/Pacific regional generally. The Council members also recognised the need in the light of continuing global security uncertainties to encourage the maintenance of a stable security environment in the South Pacific as a pre-condition for regional development.
Defence Cooperation with Australia
This year has seen important developments toward closer defence cooperation with Australia in the support/supply area. During the year a Memorandum of Understanding on Closer Defence Logistic Co-operation, and another on the reciprocal repair of defence equipment were prepared for signature at the annual meeting of Australian and New Zealand Defence Ministers scheduled for mid-March 1983. The Australian General Election, however, supervened, and the Ministerial meeting has been deferred until later in 1983. These 2 agreements reflect continuing progress in developing closer bilateral defence links between Australia and New Zealand.
During the year the 2 countries’ servicemen have exercised together in various areas of our region and trained together on a diverse range of courses. Also, Australia and New Zealand have operated together as the helicopter element of the Aviation Support Group for the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) in the Sinai.
Five Power Defence Arrangements
Following informal talks held at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting at New Delhi in September 1980, it was decided to reactivate multinational exercises under the Five Power Defence Arrangements. Subsequently, at meetings held in Canberra and Kuala Lumpur an exercise programme was drawn up and financial guidelines approved. Land, air and maritime exercises have been held in New Zealand, Australia and South-east Asia. A further series of exercises has been approved for the coming year and will include air defence exercises under the auspices of the Integrated Air Defence System (IADS).
New Zealand Presence in Singapore. New Zealand Force South-east Asia (NZFORSEA}, comprising Force Headquarters, 1st Battalion Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment, an RNZAF Support Unit and supporting elements continues to be stationed in Singapore. The Force participates in joint exercises and training with Malaysia and Singapore, which provide considerable mutual benefit.
The continued presence in Singapore of NZFORSEA remains a matter of mutual agreement between the Governments of Singapore and New Zealand. It is regarded by both Malaysia and Singapore as a tangible expression of continued New Zealand interest in the stability and security of the region; recently both Malaysia and Singapore have indicated that they welcome the presence of the NZFORSEA and that they believe that it makes an important contribution to regional security.
Mutual Assistance Programme
New Zealand has sought to assist nations in the South Pacific and Southeast Asia with the development of their armed forces since the 1950s. In 1973 the Government placed these activities within the framework of a Mutual Assistance Programme (MAP). The broad objectives of the MAP are to demonstrate support for and to strengthen regional security in New Zealand’s prime area of strategic concern by: maintaining and strengthening practical working relationships in the defence field; contributing to the effectiveness and self-reliance of the defence forces of regional countries, and assisting in development projects by imparting engineering and trade skills and providing advice and supervisory assistance. In return New Zealand gains wider training opportunities. Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, The Philippines, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Tonga currently participate in the programme. Assistance is also provided to other South Pacific island states from rime to time.
The MAP is designed to respond to the needs and priorities of regional countries. The nature and levels of co-operation vary from country to country. Assistance provided under the programme is confined to the provision of training in New Zealand, the deployment of training and technical teams overseas, and the attachment of a small number of New Zealand personnel for tours of duty of up to 2 years duration. During the past 12 months 352 personnel received training in New Zealand.
Defence Co-operation with Nations in the South-west Pacific
The 177 members of the Royal Fiji Military Forces (RFMF) who attended courses or received on-the-job training were the largest group of students to train in New Zealand during the year under the MAP. Many of the students who attended officer and NCO promotion and administrative courses subsequently joined RFMF battalions serving with the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon and with the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai. Other members of the RFMF attended field engineering, carpentry, and plant operator courses prior to taking up employment in Fiji’s Rural Development Unit. Emphasis in the Naval training programme is placed on midshipman, seamanship promotion, navigation, damage control, and cartography courses.
This training programme is complemented by the provision of substantial instructional assistance in Fiji. Ten Army training teams totalling 34 officers and SNCOs were sent to Fiji for periods of up to 4 months to conduct a variety of courses including initial officer training, section commander, platoon commander, ammunition storage, and ammunition ‘blind’ disposal. Seven RNZN instructors also conducted short courses in Fiji in communications, instructional techniques, weapons maintenance, diving and underwater demolition, and damage control. Members of the Defence Psychological Unit provided assistance at an RFMF officer selection board, and a signals technician assisted with the repair of RFMF communications equipment. Three members of the Royal New Zealand Engineers are currently attached to the RFMF; an officer fills a staff appointment and 2 NCOs are instructors with the Rural Development Unit. A third NCO is attached to the RFMF as a catering instructor.
The Army and the RNZAF again utilised training areas in Fiji to maintain and develop skills required for operations in tropical conditions. Regular and Territorial Force personnel and representatives of the Army’s Medical Corps took part in 6 Army exercises, the latter providing medical assistance to villagers living close to the training-areas. RNZAF Hercules and Andover aircraft and Sioux and Iroquois helicopters took part in the RNZAF’s annual tropical exercise in Fiji. During this deployment aircraft were made available to assist the Fiji Government with reconstruction and rural development projects. Iroquois helicopter crews also trained RFMF soldiers in drills applicable to helicopter operations on hind and at sea. During the year RNZAF Orion aircraft undertook 4 fisheries surveillance (lights carrying Fiji Government officers.
HMNZS Monowai undertook a joint survey with Fiji’s Hydrographic Unit of a channel off the coast of Vanua Levu. The task was to update charts of the channel which had not been surveyed for more than a century and which is now in frequent use by ships carrying Fiji’s exports to overseas markets. It was the first joint survey to be undertaken by Fiji’s Hydrographic Unit and was an excellent example of practical co-operation between the RNZN and Fiji Naval Squadron hydrographic unit.
Hurricane OSCAR in Fiji in March 1983 caused an RNZAF Orion to be despatched for reconnaissance of the islands so that the full extent of damage could be assessed. As it was apparent that there was widespread devastation 2 Iroquois helicopters were immediately deployed by Hercules to Fiji to carry food, medical stores, tents, and blankets to villages isolated by the cyclone. During 8 days of operations the 2 helicopters were airborne for a total of 82 hours and fixed wing aircraft for 55 hours delivering 72 600 Ibs of supplies. Five injured villagers were also evacuated. A historical note was added to the operation when an RNZAF Andover became the first large transport aircraft to land on the tiny coral airstrip at Kadavu to deliver tents to homeless villagers.
Thirty-two members of the Tonga Defence Services (TDS) including His Royal Highness Prince Lavaka-Ata attended courses at Army and Navy training establishments during the year. Emphasis was placed on trade training, apprenticeships, officer promotion, bridge watchkeeping. and midshipman courses. This training was complemented by the deployment of 2 RNZN training teams to Tonga to conduct courses in coastal navigation and basic seamanship.
In August a team of 10 Army Engineers travelled to Tonga to supervise the construction of prefabricated houses to replace those destroyed earlier in the year by Hurricane ISAAC. The TDS personnel who worked with the Engineer team received on-the-job training and subsequently took over the housing construction programme. The Engineers also supervised the reconstruction of the TDS Trade Training workshop on the main island of Tongatapu, which had also been destroyed by the hurricane, and removed coral outcrops at the entrance to the port of Pangai on the island of Lifuka. Other assistance provided under the MAP included the attachment to the TDS for a period of 2 years of a warrant officer as a vehicle mechanic instructor in the Trade Training School; a 3 month attachment of an Army officer to develop new stock control and stores administration procedures for the TDS; assistance with the renovation of guns in the TDS saluting battery; and a course in international affairs conducted in Tonga by an officer from the staff of the RNZAF Command and Staff College. In addition an RNZN team from HMNZS Monowai checked the radio, radar, and electrical equipment on the TDS patrol craft and removed some items for repair in the RNZN’s Fleet Maintenance Unit.
Papua New Guinea
Officer staff training, aircraft loadmaster, and parachute training were among the courses attended by 12 members of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force during the year. Army training teams deployed to PNG to conduct shooting coaching and MP platoon sergeant induction courses. The latter course was also attended by 2 members of the Vanuatu Mobile Force. A Defence dental team visited PNG to train dental therapists in radiography, endodontics, conservative dentistry, periodontics, and the maintenance of surgical instruments. The team also carried out dental work in PNG villages. Two New Zealand instructors continued their attachment to the PNGDF Defence Academy at Lae.
An RNZAF explosive ordnance disposal team travelled to Mangaia, Mitiaro, Aitutaki, and Rarotonga under the MAP to examine the conditions of explosives stored on these islands for reef blasting operations. The team disposed of the explosives which were in a dangerous condition, and provided advice and assistance to local officials in the handling of such explosives. In September an RNZAF Hercules carried several tonnes of water to Penrhyn in the Northern Cooks to relieve a serious water shortage. Orion aircraft undertook 4 fisheries surveillance flights carrying Cook Island Government Officers.
An Army Engineer officer travelled to Niue in December under MAP auspices to assist in the development of a lime tree orchard project, using explosives to loosen rock beneath the subsoil. The aim of the task was to anchor the trees, which provide the country’s main export, more securely in the ground so that they would be able to withstand high winds. Orion aircraft carried out 2 medical evacuation flights from Niue to New Zealand.
Defence Co-operation with the ASEAN States
Unit exercises and attendance at each other’s training courses are the main forms of co-operation between NZFORSEA and the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF). Assistance given by Force personnel to the SAF include demonstrations and instruction in the use of battlefield simulation techniques, the development of sniper techniques, and training in jungle warfare doctrine. Force personnel attended the SAF Basic Airborne course, the Armoured Personnel Carrier familiarisation course, and 84 mm recoilless rifle training courses developed by the SAF.
In June HMNZS Canterbury took park in STARFISH 82, a FPDA maritime exercise held in the South China Sea involving maritime units of all 5 countries. In December Force personnel took part in Exercise TIGER BALM, a division level Command Post Exercise involving SAF, NZFORSEA and US Army elements. Skyhawk aircraft of No. 75 Squadron deployed to the area in September to take part in a Five Power air defence system exercise with Australian, Singaporean, and Malaysian air forces.
Assistance provided under the MAP included the attachment of a RNZAF navigation instructor to the RSAF and the attendance of 16 members of the SAF at pilot training, advanced navigator, and officer promotion courses in New Zealand.
Co-operation between NZFORSEA and the Malaysian Armed Forces CMAF) continued at a high level during the year. In January a conventional war exercise, TAIAHA TOMBAK VI, was held in Johore under the combined control of 7 Malaysian Infantry Brigade and the Force. The exercise provided 1 RNZIR with an opportunity to practise various phases of conventional warfare in a combined arms setting. The RNZAF and the RMAF exercised together during the Five Power integrated Air Defence System exercises and HMNZS Canterbury exercised with RMN units during STARFISH 82. Assistance provided by the Force to the MAF during the year included the provision of platoons for demonstrations and to act as enemy for courses at the Malaysian Army Combat Training Centre at Pulada; helicopter support both to the Combat Training Centre and to the Special Warfare Centre at Malacca; and rappelling courses for the Malaysian Police Field Force. In addition the Malaysian Army was supported in the development of its own battlefield simulation system.
Seventy-three MAF personnel attended a variety of training courses in New Zealand including officer promotion, initial officer training, anti-armour, advanced radio and signals, radio mechanics, and advanced navigator training. Under the interchange programme, 1 RNZN officer took up instructor dudes at the RMNs new naval base at Lumut, and an RMN officer was attached to the RNZN’s Hydrographic Unit. Two NZ Army officers are instructing at the Malaysian Army Combat Training Centre and a Malaysian Army Cavalry officer is attached to the Royal New Zealand Armoured Corps.
In April a Defence dental team visited the Indonesian Defence Dental Institute to conduct courses in conservative and restorative dentistry as part of the Institute’s comprehensive dentistry programme. An RNZAF officer travelled to Jakarta in January to assist the Indonesian Air Force Medical School to conduct a course in aviation pathology and accident investigation. Fourteen members of the Indonesian Armed Forces attended a variety of courses in New Zealand including dental training, the RNZAF’s Senior Command and Staff College, fleet maintenance techniques, and Army officer promotion. The Indonesian Armed Forces made available an officer for 5 months to carry out a course of advanced language instruction at Wellington Polytechnic. In March a New Zealand Army officer became the sixth member of the New Zealand Armed Forces to attend the 12 month Indonesian Army Staff College course.
Training received by 22 Thai officers during the year included on-the-job training in C130 aircraft maintenance, and Army officer promotion courses. In addition 3 officers from Supreme Command Headquarters visited New Zealand to examine Defence training facilities and 3 Thai Army officers studied the structure and roles of the Army’s Territorial Force and observed TF annual camps. Students and directing staff of the Thai National Defence College visited New Zealand in May on a study tour.
The Philippines Minister of National Defence, the Hon. Juan Ponce Enrile visited New Zealand from 29 April to 3 May. In addition to visiting Defence training facilities he held discussions with the Minister of Defence and the Minister of Foreign Affairs on international and regional issues. In October RNZAF aircraft of No. 75 Squadron deployed to the Philippines to exercise with the United States and Philippines Air Forces.
OPERATIONS, EXERCISES, AND TRAINING EXCHANGES
Sinai Multinational Force and Observers
New Zealand’s contribution to the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) in the Sinai, which was established to ensure compliance with the terms of the Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel is 35 military personnel and 2 UH-IH Iroquois helicopters (leased from the US Army).
Twenty-seven RNZAF and 2 New Zealand Army personnel are serving jointly with Australians in the helicopter section of the MFO Aviation Group, based at El Gorah, on a 6 month tour of duty. Following a reorganisation of the MFO headquarters New Zealand now provides 2 RNZAF officers, 3 Army officers, and 1 Army warrant officer to the staff.
To maintain the helicopter unit, New Zealand is paying an amount equivalent to the normal operating costs in New Zealand, with the MFO meeting all the additional costs of keeping the unit in the Sinai.
New Zealand’s initial commitment to the MFO is for a 2 year period which ends in April 1984. No decision had been made regarding any extension of the commitment.
RNZN Indian Ocean Deployment
During the Falklands crisis in May, New Zealand offered an RNZN frigate for the RN Task Group in the Indian Ocean. This allowed an RN vessel to be deployed elsewhere and gave the RNZN a valuable opportunity to operate in a different region alongside the RN. HMNZ Ships Canterbury and Waikato have alternated in this role. While in the Indian Ocean they have made port calls at Colombo, Karachi, Mauritius, Mombassa, Zanzibar, Port Sudan, Muscat, and Diego Garcia.
HMNZS Canterbury and 2 Orion aircraft took part in RIMPAC 82, during the period 8-28 April. The exercise was conducted in Hawaiian waters and involved forces from Australia, Canada, Japan, and the US.
HMNZS Canterbury and an Orion aircraft also participated in a Five Power Defence Arrangement maritime exercise, STARFISH II 82, together with naval forces from Australia, Singapore, and Malaysia. The exercise was undertaken in the South China Sea from 4-10 June.
The major Army exercise for the year was the New Zealand sponsored ANZUS exercise TRUPPENAMT 82, held at Waiouru during the period 30 October-9 November.
The exercise was designed to practice divisional and subordinate formation headquarters in command and staff procedures, including operational administration, at formation and joint agency level; formation and unit commanders and staffs in the tactics of the withdrawal; and as many other officers and senior ranks as practicable in operations in a divisional setting. Officers from Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia attended the exercise in observer status.
During the year the Army conducted a number of major exercises with other nations. Exercise SOUTHERN SAFARI 82, the New Zealand sponsored Five Power defence exercise was conducted in the Tekapo/Pukaki area during the period 22 March-1 April 1982. Infantry companies from Australia, Malaysia, Singapore, and from the British Army force based in Hong Kong also took part. The aim was to enable the Five Power Defence partners to operate together in a land environment.
Exercise CAPTIVE LIGHTNING an annual deployment of Hawaii-based United States Army personnel took place in July 1982. A 600 man contingent from the 1/27 Infantry Battalion of the 25th Infantry Division conducted cold weather training at Waiouru. New Zealand Army liaison and logistic personnel were attached to the contingent for the duration of the exercise.
In November an Orion aircraft deployed to Perth to participate in SANDGROPER 82, an ANZUS maritime exercise in the Indian Ocean.
In October No. 75 Squadron with 8 Sky hawks participated in an Integrated Air Defence System exercise in Malaysia/Singapore with Australian, Singaporean, and Malaysian forces. On departure from Singapore, the Squadron took part in exercise COPE THUNDER in the Philippines alongside units from the Philippines Air Force and the U.S. Pacific Air Force.
The series of reciprocal tactical training visits with the RAAF continued. Four RNZAF Skyhawks visited Williamtown, Australia in July 1981 and 4 RAAF Mirages visited RNZAF Ohakea in March 1982.
RNZAF Orion aircraft deployed regularly to Australia and Hawaii to practice anti-submarine warfare techniques. In March an Orion deployed to Kodena, Japan to participate in anti-submarine warfare exercises with U.S. Naval forces.
Other Exercises, Training Exchanges, and Operations
En route to Exercise RIMPAC in April HMNZS Canterbury joined a transit exercise with RAN units, and, following RIMPAC, in company with a U.S. Navy carrier battle group, conducted a passage exercise. In October HMNZS Otago together with Canadian and RAN units took part in TASMANEX 82 held in the Tasman Sea and Auckland exercise areas. HMNZS Waikato in company with USN and RN vessels participated in passage exercises in the Indian Ocean 13-17 October.
SQUADEX 83 was held during the period 14-21 January and HMNZ Ships Waikato, Otago, Monowai, Tui, Hawea, Pukaki, Taupo, Mako, Koura, and Kuparau took part. During the period 12-21 March HMNZS Waikato together with USN and RAN units participated in Exercise SEA EAGLE 83-1 in the East Australian exercise areas. AUCKEX 83 was conducted from 14-25 March with HMNZ Ships Waikato, Otago, Hawea and Taupo along with USN units participating.
HMNZS Monowai carried the Governor-General and Vice-Regal party, calling at Aitutaki, Palmerston, Niue, Tonga, and Western Samoa. These visits also gave an opportunity to carry out hydrographic work. HMNZS Otago was escort for Her Majesty’s Yacht Britannia during her Pacific Island cruise during October/November 1982. HMNZS Tui was in attendance at Tonga for the wedding of the King of Tonga’s third son, HRH Prince Lavaka-Ata.
The New Zealand Army has continued a series of individual and sub-unit exchanges designed to broaden the military experience and knowledge of the servicemen selected, and at the same time to promote wider cooperation with other armies. These exchanges include:
(a) Exercise LONG LOOK. Between August and December 1982, 31 New Zealand soldiers were attached to British Army units in the United Kingdom and British Army of the Rhine (BAOR) in Germany while 31 British soldiers served in New Zealand Army units.
(b) Exercise ANZAC EXCHANGE. During 1982, 6 soldiers served in Australian Army units for periods ranging from 1 to 4 months under this continuing programme.
(c) Exercise PALEX. Between September and December 1982, 1 officer and 4 senior non-commissioned officers were attached to United States Army units in Hawaii while the New Zealand Army hosted 2 officers and 3 senior non-commissioned officers from the United States.
(d) Exercise PACIFIC PACIC This is an annual exercise involving a 50 man unit exchange between the New Zealand Army and a Hawaiian-based United States Army unit. This year the exchange was between signals units of the New Zealand Army and 25 (U.S.) Infantry Division. The exercise provided participants with the opportunity for familiarisation with each Army’s equipment and operational doctrine.
(e) Exercise TASMAN RESERVE. This is a reciprocal exchange between Australian Army Reserve and New Zealand Territorial Force infantry contingents—120 all ranks from 4 Battalion (Otago and Southland) RNZIR deployed to Australia to train with 11 Field Force Group in the Townsville-Tuily area over the period 11-28 March. 7 Battalion (Wellington/Hawkes Bay) RNZIR hosted the Australian contingent which comprises 120 all ranks drawn from 11 Field Force Group and 7 Task Force, over the period 15-29 January.
(f) Exercise PACIFIC RESERVE. Ten New Zealand Territorial Force personnel participated in United States Reservist training with the 100th Battalion, 442 Infantry (U.S.) Army Reserve at the Pohakuloa training area on the island of Hawaii, over the period 17-31 July 1982.
(g) Exercise TASMAN EXCHANGE. Over the period 16 March-7 April 1982, 120 personnel from 2 Field Squadron Royal New Zealand Engineers deployed to Australia to train with 2/3 Field Engineer Regiment in the Brisbane, Canungra areas.
During the year 10 Royal New Zealand Armoured Corps personnel also travelled to Australia to carry out on-the-job training with the Leopard main battle tank (Exercise LEOPARD LEARNER). In February, 4 New Zealand officers took part in the annual Exercise TEAM SPIRIT as part of the Divisional Headquarters of 25 (U.S.) Infantry Division. After initial preparation in Hawaii, they deployed with a Division to the Republic of Korea to exercise with the ROK Army’s 3rd Corps.
In March/April 1982, 1 RNZIR based in Singapore participated in Exercise TAIAHA TOMBAK in Malaysia, an annual Malaysian Army Brigade level exercise to practice conventional warfare skills in a tropical environment. An infantry company comprising mainly Territorial Force personnel deployed to Singapore/Malaysia and was integrated with 1 RNZIR for this purpose.
A contingent of 61 personnel from 2 Task Force Region deployed to Hawaii to participate in Exercise TROPIC LIGHTNING 82 with 25 (U.S.) Infantry Division over the period 26 May-9 June 1982. The primary objective of the exercise was to provide U.S. Army divisional staff, major subordinate commands, and battalion headquarters, with training in command and staff tasks procedures related to tactical and logistic planning and operations.
Small groups of officers travelled to Hawaii and Australia to participate in command post exercises.
The TROPIC series of 6 exercises was again held in Fiji. Over 500 Army regular and TF personnel took part, so giving soldiers training in all-arms soldiering and in individual military skills and practice in close country battle craft in a tropical environment.
Strikemaster and Orion aircraft took part in TASMANEX 82, in October. The following month the annual anti-submarine warfare exercise between New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and the U.K. was held in New Zealand and the Fincastle Trophy was won by a New Zealand crew for the second time in 3 years.
Routine in-country deployments of RNZAF units continued with Strikemasters from No. 14 Squadron and Air Trainers and Friendships from the Flying Training Wing visiting Hokitika, Rotorua, Whakatane, Invercargill, and Queenstown, operating from tented camps.
In exercise BLACKBIRD, helicopters from No. 3 Squadron operated with RAAF helicopters gaining experience in flying in mountainous terrain in the Southern Alps.
ROUTINE OPERATIONS AND ACTIVITIES
New Zealand Area
RNZN ships visited Raoul Island and other outlying islands carrying personnel from various Government Departments and their stores. HMNZS Otago was present in the Bay of Islands during the Waitangi Day celebrations. HMNZS Taranaki made a farewell visit to New Plymouth and carried out a Charter Parade. HMNZS Taranaki then returned to Auckland and was formally decommissioned on 16 June 1982.
HMNZS Tui was involved in a joint project with Auckland University and the Defence Science Establishment to study sea noise in the vicinity of Great Barrier Island.
Preparatory work was undertaken by the Hydrographic Office on the Exclusive Economic Zone Maritime Boundaries between Niue and American Samoa at the request of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
During the year the Naval Operational Diving Team undertook a total of 2344 diving man hours in assistance to Government Departments and other agencies. These included: Television New Zealand, Ministry of Works and Development, Hauraki Gulf Maritime Parks Board, the DSIR, Accident Compensation Commission (4 cases of decompression sickness), the New Zealand Post Office, and the Auckland Hospital Board.
Army engineers carried out numerous small tasks in support of local mutual government bodies, school, sporting, and charitable organisations. Tasks of special note included: the removal of 8000 cubic metres of rock from the side of a railway line near Cass; the construction of a suspension bridge over the Owhanga River as part of a new water reticulation scheme; building recreation facilities for the Weymouth Girls’ Corrective School; and making a 45 obstacle confidence course for the Auckland Educational Activities Association on Mototapu Island; as well as attendance at numerous fires, toxic chemical spills and vehicle accidents in the Waiouru/Desert Road area.
RNZAF helicopters flew 38 hours during January/February 1983 providing fire fighting assistance in the central North Island. In addition, demonstrations were given to various rural fire services by RNZAF helicopters. Helicopters were also used to support a N.Z. Wildlife Service survey for a proposed National Wildlife reserve in the Tongariro area, and for a survey of the tributaries of the central North Island rivers. The RNZAF also provided assistance to the DSIR in monitoring volcanic activity on White Island.
The RNZAF helped with training for the Police Armed Offenders and anti-terrorist squads. Fifty hours were flown in support of Police operations during Waitangi Day celebrations.
The United States National Science Foundation through the United States Department of Defense, again requested New Zealand Defence support for operations in Antarctica during the period October 1982-February 1983. A cargo handling team of 23 Army personnel went to Antarctica during the first week of October 1982 and returned to New Zealand in early December 1982, to be replaced by a second team of similar size. Continuity in command appointments was provided by one officer and one warrant officer who stayed the entire summer season. In addition, a team of 15 personnel from the Territorial Force were sent to McMurdo Sound in January 1983 for 4 weeks to help unload ships.
Although the volume of freight transported to Antarctica during the 1982-83 summer was less than in previous years, Operation Deep Freeze provided valuable and realistic training for Army personnel in cargo terminal operations.
At the request of the Antarctic Division of the DSIR, a team of 16 RNZE tradesmen worked again at Scott Base on the rebuilding programme. This year the accommodation, mess, and kitchen buildings were finished inside and a start was made on the command building. An old shed was cleared from the site, the area surveyed and foundations prepared ready for next season’s work.
Between 14 November and 9 December the RNZAF made 13 return trips to McMurdo Sound, delivering 278 579 Ibs of freight, and carrying 142 persons with 10 000 Ibs of baggage.
Search and Rescue
Three hundred and fifty-three flying hours were taken up in search and rescue operations in New Zealand and offshore as far afield as the South Pacific Islands. Throughout the year a 2 hour standby capability was maintained with helicopters at Wigram and Auckland and with fixed wing aircraft at Auckland and Ohakea.
RNZN ships have also been involved in search and rescue operations principally for missing pleasure craft.
As its contribution to the management of New Zealand’s fishing resources Defence carries out surveillance and policing of fishing activities out to the 200-mile limit of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
These duties in the territorial sea and EEZ were again undertaken by the Patrol Craft Squadron, comprising HMNZ Ships Pukaki, Hawea, Taupo and Rotoiti and by the frigates HMNZ Ships Taranaki and Otago with assistance from the RNZAF. Other RNZN vessels reported on the activities of foreign fishing vessels during normal transits. Ninety-one courtesy and investigatory boardings were carried out by RNZN vessels during the year. A total of 901 hours were flown by RNZAF Orion, Andover, and Friendship aircraft in support of EEZ resource protection activities.
HMNZS Monowai began the year at sea with the survey of the Foveaux Strait area in preparation for a new larger scale chart of the Strait. Some tidal stream observations were also undertaken in the Otago Peninsula area in co-operation with the University of Otago.
HMNZS Monowai returned to Auckland for assisted maintenance in early June 1982 and sailed for a 4 month deployment to the Pacific Islands on 15 June. HMNZS Monowai carried out further hydrographic work in the South Pacific region. This included mapping of Apia Harbour in July, a joint survey with Fiji’s Hydrographic Unit of a channel off the coast of Vanua Levu in August and a survey of uncharted seamounts in Tongan waters in September. A call was made at Raoul Island on the voyage north to support and replenish the Meteorological Station on behalf of the Ministry of Transport.
Following her annual refit and participation in Naval exercises, HMNZS Monowai was in the Cook Strait area for a re-survey to modern standards to provide information for a large scale chart of Cook Strait and the approaches to Wellington.
The inshore survey craft, HMNZ Ships Tarapunga and Takapu, devoted almost the entire year to surveying the more confined waters of Foveaux Strait. Progress on the survey was slow and painstaking due to the rugged nature of the sea-bed and adverse weather conditions. Additional minor survey tasks were undertaken at Riverton Harbour at the request of the Harbour Board, to ascertain the extent of shoaling, and in the South Canterbury Bight in co-operation with the Ministry of Works and Development as a basis for research into sediment transport in the area. The craft returned to Auckland for refit in September/October 1982 and for assisted maintenance in March 1983.
Metrication of New Zealand fathom charts is continuing. New metric editions of the Tamaki Strait, Waitemata, and Manukau Harbours have been published. Metric charts of Whangarei, Tauranga, and Otago Harbours are now almost completed. Two new metric charts replacing the single fathom chart of the approaches to Napier and Napier Harbour will be published shortly.
The Hydrographic Office also assisted with the organisation and printing of a Fijian chart of Nukulekaleka Bay, at the request of the Fijian Hydrographic Unit. Two draughtsmen from the RFMF Hydrographic Unit have recently commenced 3 years’ cartographic training at the New Zealand Hydrographic Office.
All main changes to the IALA Maritime Buoyage System, Region A progressively introduced to New Zealand waters during 1982, have been completed. The changeover to this system required numerous amendments to navigational charts and publications.
During the year a total of 8 new charts, 4 new editions, and 32 reprints and revisions were published. Sales to the shipping industry and the public, together with service issues totalled 50 639 charts (all fully corrected and up-to-date) and 5879 navigational books. In addition, 25 000 copies of the Weekly Notices to Mariners (containing 338 Notices) and 600 copies of the Annual Summary were published and 193 long-range Navigational Warnings were issued for the South Pacific area.
During the past year the Tidal Section made considerable advances in developing a computer-based tidal information system. Many more tidal analyses will as a result be able to be done. Data from 17 new tidal stations have been analysed including the Standard Port, Tauranga; the results will appear on Hydrographic Charts and in the New Zealand Tide Tables. Harbour Boards were helped with selection of new tide recording equipment and the establishment of temporary tide gauges for harbour environmental studies. The data collected will provide more information about tides around New Zealand.
A summary of armed forces strengths, including enlistments and releases, is set out in Table 1.
Recruitment and Retention
A decreased rate of release in all 3 services this year continues the trend of previous years. Recruiting has attracted a slight increase in inquiries in most categories. Nevertheless it remains necessary actively to recruit for officer cadets and specialist technical trainees. A continuing shortage of engineering officers in the RNZN made recruitment for experienced personnel from the United Kingdom necessary.
Conditions of Service
No significant changes have been made in conditions of service during the period in conformity with the wage/price freeze. Some changes in overseas conditions and adjustments have been needed as with the allowances for U.N. Military Observers and personnel serving under the Mutual Assistance Programme. A package of special conditions has been developed for the N.Z. contingent of the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai.
Armed forces personnel wishing to develop their abilities over a wide range of topics and levels, particularly in the technical and management fields, continue to seek voluntary educational assistance. These studies at both secondary and tertiary levels complement and enhance military and civil qualifications gained during formal training courses and help with eventual return to civil employment.
The provision of psychological services and research assistance to the armed forces has been maintained by the Defence Psychology Unit, with activities mainly associated with personnel selection and training. Assistance has been provided to other Departments in the form of selection board support for the Ministry of Transport and the Royal Fiji Military Forces officer selection board, and assistance with 2 university study programmes.
Defence Chaplains contribute greatly to Service welfare not only in the provision of religious services, worship, sacraments, and moral education, but also in a wide range of pastoral care activities.
A high level of medical care has again been maintained in the armed forces. Maternity facilities at Waiouru Hospital are now fully operational. During the year significant changes were made to the medical aspects of the recruiting procedures resulting in considerable cost savings.
Dental health has been maintained at a satisfactory level but surveys have shown that more emphasis should be placed on prevention and treatment of gum diseases in the future. A 3 man dental team conducted on-the-job training for dental therapists of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force at Wewak and Manus Island and took part in a rural civil action exercise near Port Moresby. An exchange of dental personnel occurred with a N.Z. lecturing team visiting Indonesia and 4 Indonesians coming to N.Z. for on-the-job training.
The Services continue to encourage participation in sport for both general recreation and in competitive environments. Inter-unit and inter-service tournaments were held in all major codes and Combined Services teams again competed in national tournaments.
The Army Garrison Institute had another profitable trading year. The range of facilities in camps, including the grocery supermarkets in Burnham and Waiouru, provide excellent service and were again well patronised by soldiers and their dependants.
The Army Central Welfare Fund derives most of its income from Army Garrison Institute profits. The fund operates the Army Leave Centres, makes grants and loans in compassionate cases, and in the past year has contributed to the financing of several major welfare projects, including: a swimming pool at Ngaruawahia Camp; sports clubrooms at Linton Camp; building extensions to the community marae at Waiouru; and fairway improvements to the Trentham Camp golf course.
The Army Group Institute Plan, which has been in operation since 1980, is now consolidated with 2304 soldier members and 1081 spouse members. In the coming year it is intended to raise the insurance cover from the present $20,000 to $30,000.
In the past year 290 personnel attended overseas courses of varying lengths, mostly at military training establishments in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the U.S. Emphasis has continued to be given to initial officer, post graduate, technical, and application training, with use being made of staff college specialist and management courses as well. Provision was also made for selected personnel to undertake training that will assist the armed forces in assessing changes in operational doctrine and technology and thus provide the necessary expertise in a number of fields. With continuing increase in training costs special care has been taken to ensure that training conducted overseas is essential and that such training cannot currently be conducted in New Zealand. The number of personnel serving on overseas exchanges remained at 17; such exchanges are designed to sustain particular operational skills, to train officers for specific posts on their return to New Zealand, and to broaden the military experience of selected personnel.
Two thousand eight hundred and forty-one male and female regular personnel undertook training courses ranging from half a day to 1 year’s duration. The total includes 311 new entry, 2479 basic branch trainees/advanced or refresher trainees and 51 officers, of whom 3 graduated from university under the degree scheme. Under the MAP training was given to 80 Fijian and 20 Malaysian servicemen. In addition, a total of 68 RNZNVR and 64 Sea Cadet personnel received training at HMNZS Tamaki during the Christmas and school holiday periods. This was fewer than last year because of reduced accommodation due to renovations. Sixty-seven personnel from the Army and Air Force, 182 from HMNZ Dockyard, and 56 from other Government Departments also received training during the year.
The implementation of RNZN systems training continued with emphasis given to solving specific problems. Accordingly, 3 large projects were started or were in progress to facilitate job based training; for the junior officer, the Engineering Branch and the medical assistant Able Seamans rank. Eighteen personnel were trained in the analysis and design of training and the ANZAC exchange continued successfully.
Sixty officers were commissioned into the New Zealand Army during the year, including 7 graduates from the Royal Military College Duntroon, 10 from the Officer Cadet School Portsea, 18 from the Officer Cadet Training Company at Waiouru, and 10 as Quartermaster and specialist officers. One thousand nine hundred and thirty-seven Regular and 592 Territorial Force Army personnel received individual training on a total of 531 courses conducted by Army Schools and Depots. Recruiting of officer cadets continues to be a problem with only 45 personnel entering officer training schools against the requirement for 70. A total of 268 Regular Force and 1054 Territorial Force soldiers qualified on recruit training courses conducted at Waiouru and Burnham. The Army also accepted 262 personnel from the Navy, Air Force, and Police on courses. A total of 206 soldiers from ASEAN and South Pacific nations were trained in Army establishments under the Mutual Assistance Programme.
During the year 28 officers graduated from aircrew courses. Ten officers graduated as flying instructors while advanced training was completed by 3 navigators. Forty-two officers completed junior staff training and included officers from Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Fiji, and Malaysia. Nine RNZAF, 3 New Zealand Army, 2 RNZN, 1 RMAF, 2 PNGDF, and 1 Indonesian graduated from the RNZAF Command and Staff College. Twenty-five newly commissioned officers or officer cadets graduated from the Officer Training School, while 17 University Cadets completed degrees or qualified for further training. The RNZAF conducted 51 ground training courses from which 696 personnel successfully graduated.
Use was made of RNZAF facilities to provide training assistance to the Ministry of Transport, N.Z. Police, general aviation, St. Johns Ambulance, and the news media. Assistance centred around general aviation medicine training.
Strengths of the non-regular forces are listed in Table 1.
A total of 56 RNZNVR officers and 178 ratings completed wholetime service in RNZN ships and training schools during 1982. Nine officers and 26 ratings carried out wholetime sea training in inshore survey craft and carried out familiarisation training with HMNZS Toroa during several weekends while the vessels were operating from Dunedin. In addition, 19 RNZNVR ratings served for a week with the Royal Canadian Navy Training Squadron during their visit to New Zealand.
During the year the RNZNVR took part in the first world wide exercise EXPANDED SEA 82 and patrol duties associated with the visit of the United States Ship Truxtun during its visit to Wellington.
The RNZNVR is currently at full strength with 407 personnel. However, new personnel are being recruited to allow for the normal attrition rate.
The RNZNVR motor launches are rapidly coming to the end of their economic life and since August 1982 HMNZS Toroa has been without a motor launch for sea training and RNZN supporting role duties. Recent surveys indicate that 2 of the remaining 4 motor launches will reach the end of their economic life in 1983 and the others by early 1985. They will be replaced by new inshore patrol craft built by Whangarei Engineering Company; the first such vessel HMNZS Moa will undergo ‘first of its class’ trials before delivery in September 1983 to HMNZS Toroa in Dunedin. The remaining 3 craft will be built and delivered to the RNZN at 6 monthly intervals.
The Territorial Force strength at 31 March 1983 was 6101. Enlistments totalled 1418; 1717 were discharged; 111 were enlisted and discharged during the year; 1054 personnel completed basic training (a decrease of 93 over the previous year). During the year Territorial Force personnel took part in exercises in Australia, Fiji, Malaysia, and Hawaii, and a team of 15 deployed to Antarctica for a 4 week period on Operation Deep Freeze.
As in previous years the Territorial Air Force provided for Air Traffic Control appointments and manning the RNZAF Central Band. Approval in principle was given in 1981 to raise the strength of the Territorial Air Force as part of the core force concept enunciated in the 1978 Defence Review. Implementation has however not yet been possible. The question of the role to be played by non-regular forces in the RNZAF will be taken up in the current re-examination of Defence needs.
Community support for the New Zealand Cadet Forces programme will be crucial. At present over half the running costs of individual units are borne by the support committees of the Navy League, Air Cadet League, and participating schools. The Cadets offer a valuable form of youth training. Defence however has many other calls on finance. The Ministry is thus able to do little more than help with training activities, administered by the Area Training Officers.
Most units are approaching their establishment strengths and during the year increases in the strengths of 2 units were approved. Support committees show enthusiasm for establishing new school and town units in many areas. Financial constraints have however caused difficulties in providing the necessary funds for such expansion. A special Working Group has been established by the Cadet Advisory Committee to report on Cadet Forces activity priorities and ways and means of financing them.
The numbers of permanent and temporary civilian staff and casual wage workers employed at 31 March 1983 totalled 3284, as detailed in Table 1.
Some difficulties have been encountered in providing support civilian staff in the Army and Defence Headquarters, both of which are only manned to 75 percent, because of staff ceiling levels.
No overseas recruiting exercises have taken place this year as HMNZ Dockyard have been able to recruit sufficient numbers of local trades staff. This position may change. Recruitment of local personnel in the electronic data processing field has proved difficult and considerable use has been made of contract staff.
DEFENCE MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
The refurbishment and reallocation of floors in the Stout Street Building has commenced; senior executive personnel are expected to move from the 1st floor to the 6th floor in mid-1983.
Management Support Services
During the year initial moves were made to strengthen the management support services available to the Ministry. A new Director of Management Support was appointed who will be responsible for developing the integration of management services, internal audit and establishment, and inspection services.
During the year significant progress was made in facilitating defence logistic support and supply co-operation between New Zealand and its ANZUS partners, Australia and the United States. Co-operative project studies were initiated with Australia and a review of the 1969 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Defence Supply with Australia was undertaken. As a consequence of the study a revised MOU on Closer Logistic Cooperation has been prepared which will be signed in 1983. This MOU will strengthen the co-operation in defence supply and support matters with our regional partner in line with the concept of CER. A further MOU with Australia providing for the reciprocal repair of defence equipment in both countries has been finalised.
In June a MOU on Logistic Support between the U.S. and New Zealand was signed. This is an extension of an existing Understanding and establishes policies and guidelines for the provision of reciprocal logistic support between New Zealand and the U.S. during peacetime, periods of international tension, and in time of armed conflict involving either or both parties.
The Pacific Area Senior Officers Logistic Seminar (PASOLS) was held in Hawaii and the Project Development Group (PDG), the working committee tasked with researching and developing policy matters for PASOLS, was held in Thailand during the year. New Zealand’s defence objectives in the Pacific area continue to be met by involvement in these discussions with our neighbours and allies.
Capital Works and Maintenance
Accommodation and facilities occupied by the Armed Forces still date to a large extent from, or before, World War II. Substantial and very welcome progress has however been made in recent years, particularly in improving accommodation standards. The priority is for capital works to be designed to remove inadequacies and meet mandatory standards over a wide range of operational, industrial, and training facilities. Until an overall Government review of Housing Policy is completed construction of additional units for Defence has been deferred. Current Government policy limiting construction and acquisition of housing in urban areas has also affected Defence.
The cost of ongoing maintenance of accommodation and facilities exacerbates the problems. Existing allocations for normal routine maintenance are substantially less than estimated costs and the backlogs of work will be difficult to fund. Some emphasis is now being given to replacement of base facilities (e.g., water, sewage, and electrical reticulations) since many of these systems have given between 40 and 50 years of service. Despite financial constraints, however, the identification of problems and the planning of remedial works must proceed. A detailed survey of major hangar structures has been concluded and life extension priorities are now being determined for inclusion in future programmes. It is also noted that the acquisition of new buildings and facilities with more demanding mandatory and operational standards (e.g., structures, fire protection, environmental control, industrial safety) does not unfortunately necessarily lower maintenance costs.
Significant progress was made on a number of capital works programmes during the year. Side transfer facilities for small vessels were completed at the Naval Base and a contract was let to construct the new Calliope South Wharf at a total cost of $13.65 m. The Auckland Army Centre at Arch Hill was completed. Reconstruction and improvements to hardstanding adjacent to No. 3 Hangar Whenuapai were carried out and work on an Operational Support Centre is progressing. At Waiouru an extensive construction programme is under way with work well advanced on a new Officers’ Mess, a new Senior NCOs’ Mess, a 60 bed barrack block, a field miniature range for fire support vehicles, and extension of the medium temperature hot water system into the industrial area. The second and final stage of the Airmen’s Club at Ohakea was completed, as was the new building to house Air Traffic Services. A new Junior Ranks’ Dining Hall has been completed at Trentham, replacing a building which has been in service since World War I. Progress continues to be made improving technical training accommodation and extending the district heating scheme at Woodboume, and work is underway on a project to rebuild and renovate the Airmen’s Club (severely damaged by fire). The Senior NCOs’ Mess at Wigram is being extended.
This year the Special Maintenance Programme required closer scrutiny of tenders because of the competitive nature of the market. At the Naval Base, the Dockyard Canteen was renovated. The Armament and General Workshop and the smaller stores building at Papakura were completely refurbished. At the same camp the conversion of heating to natural gas continued. Refurbishment of the main Airmen’s Barracks at Whenuapai was completed as were 2 wings of an identical block at Ohakea. Work to improve inferior specification married quarters at Waiouru, Base Auckland, and Ohakea is continuing. The work of controlling the infestation of pinus contorta in the Waiouru Training Area continued and it has been necessary to step up the level of financial commitment to this activity. The headquarters buildings of the Base Workshops at Trentham were upgraded.
Four new houses were completed during the year; 1 senior officer house at Linton and 3 units at Waiouru (constructed under the Army Engineer Unit Programme). The upgrading of 2 blocks of duplex housing units at HMNZS Philomel has been completed.
Equipment and Supply Support
During the past year HMNZS Wellington entered RNZN service and was docked on arrival at Auckland for a major refit. In the coming year weapons sensor and communications equipment currently being purchased will be fitted.
The Army B Vehicle Replacement Programme is well underway. To date 60 x 1.5 tonne, 210 x 4 tonne, and 1×8 tonne Unimog and Mercedes Benz vehicles have been delivered. One hundred and seventy-five 0.75 tonne Landrovers will be delivered by mid-1983. Reports from the contract inspectors indicate that the standard of vehicle being produced by the N.Z. assemblers is high. In accordance with the general policy of the Army Vehicle Replacement Programme tenders for ISO containers have been let and are currently being evaluated by Army. Tenders are to be called for the installation of a variety of ancillary systems into containers. A contract for the provision of 124 operational motorcycles is to be issued shortly. The supply of special tools and spare parts for servicing these machines is part of the contract. Four Scorpion (combat reconnaissance vehicles) have entered service with the Army. Some 90 percent of the initial supply of spare parts has also been received, a further 13 vehicles are due in the country by April 1983.
The age of some of the Army’s equipment is posing difficulties and the need for replacement is becoming urgent. Spare parts are becoming exceedingly difficult to procure. Particular items affected are the 30 and 56 mm calibre machine guns and the 105 mm pack howitzer. The Army is continuing to define its requirements for the replacement of essential commodities such as weapons, communication and engineering equipments. It is recognised that replacement of stores of this nature will be required in the near future.
During the year 2 of the 4 additional Wasp helicopters were delivered and are now undergoing refit at RNZAF Base Woodboume. The remaining 2 aircraft are being reworked by Westland Helicopters Ltd in U.K. and will be delivered in 1983. One Boeing 727 aircraft has completed its major servicing and refit and the second aircraft will be completed in the first half of 1983.
Structural studies in the Skyhawk A4/TA4K aircraft have revealed extensive cracking of the aircraft primary structure; repair schemes have been developed in conjunction with the U.S. Navy and McDonnell-Douglas. A structural study on the Strikemaster aircraft is underway with British Aerospace as part of the development of long term structural management.
A modernisation programme for the RNZAF P3B Orion aircraft is taking place at the Boeing Aerospace plant in Seattle, and-the first aircraft is now being fitted with the updated equipment. This aircraft is scheduled to return to New Zealand in late 1983, following which the remaining 4 will be fitted out by Air New Zealand. Determination of spares support is being carried out by the RNZAF team at the Boeing plant and will be passed to Ministry of Defence for purchase action. In conjunction with this project the RNZAF are purchasing updated Automatic Test Equipment to handle the high technology components introduced by the modification. Associated training and spares provisioning is being carried out with U.S. industry and military concerns.
The crash/fire capabilities of RNZAF Bases have been enhanced with the introduction of 8 Range Rover cross country ambulances and 6 rapid intervention fire vehicles currently being modified by Wormald Brothers.
Difficulties of balancing long lead times with the annual financial cycle continue to restrict the purchase of ammunition. In addition, the increasing costs of acquiring ammunition are compounded by small quantities needed and the poor availability of shipping willing to hand our relatively small tonnages of this kind of commodity. The introduction of new style clothing continues to be hampered by delays in obtaining satisfactory supply of woollen materials. New Vehicle Replacement policy has reduced the carrying capacity of most remaining heavy vehicles causing an increase in running on some tasks. The full impact of this has yet to be assessed.
A total of 283 declarations of obsolete and unserviceable stores and equipment were made to the Government Stores Board during the year. These included consignments of scrap metal sold for $103,996, workshop machinery sold for $29,896 and life expired helicopter blades sold for $18,000. In addition Defence disposed of 198 vehicles which were beyond economic repair.
The retrospective allocation of NATO stock numbers to items of supply on the Defence inventory had diminished over the past year and permitted some Defence cataloguing staff to be directed to long-standing file maintenance tasks.
Purchase of major items of new equipment has placed pressure on the Defence Cataloguing Authority (DCA). To alleviate this situation the DCA is examining the greater use of automated systems, using already developed Australian software.
During the year Fleet Maintenance Unit (FMU) personnel assisted in 3 refits of HMNZ frigates and undertook 8 Assisted Maintenance Periods (AMPS) in addition to the routine rectification of defects arising outside programmed maintenance periods. FMU detachments were sent to Singapore to assist HMNZ Ships Waikato and Canterbury during their programmed AMP prior to deployment to the Indian Ocean. Technical support and assisted maintenance has continued to be given both in Auckland and at other N.Z. ports to RNZN patrol craft, RNZN inshore survey craft and diving tender, RNZNVR boats, Tamaki motorised and sailing craft, Sea Cadet craft, and Police Department launches.
In addition to routine technical administration matters the Ship Maintenance Co-ordinating Authority (SMCA) has, over the past 12 months, undertaken several major projects. These include: the design and implementation of a modem management system for the processing and recording of standard RNZN returns; an investigation into air purity standards for breathing apparatus and diving recompression chambers and the investigation of various items of safety and lifesaving equipments.
HMNZ Dockyard continues to provide maintenance support to the Fleet, giving assistance to operational ships of the RNZN and visiting Naval forces and undertaking manufacture and repair of Naval store items. Some assistance has also been provided by other Government Departments.
In June the refit of HMNZS Otago was completed and HMNZS Taranaki was decommissioned, for the rest of the year most of the dockyard resources were dedicated to de-equipping Taranaki and refurbishing a variety of equipments for use as spares for the remaining frigates. Other vessels to be refitted during the year included HMNZS Monowai and the patrol craft HMNZS Pukaki. This was the first of a series of major refits which each patrol craft will undergo. Extended docking and essential defect periods were completed in 1982 in HMNZ Ships Waikato and Canterbury. The latter was held to a particularly tight schedule to enable the ship to return to the Indian Ocean on deployment.
HMNZS Wellington is now at the Dockyard for a refit which will take about 2 years. All elements of this ship will be overhauled and a comprehensive range of new equipments, together with additional fuel tanks will be installed. By New Zealand standards this is a major and very complex industrial project.
HMNZS Irirangi has maintained defence communications with Australia, Honolulu, and Vancouver, and with naval ships at sea. It has also assisted with search and rescue communications as required.
The Fleet Support Group which has now been in operation for 3 years, continues to provide a wide range of support supply services. Of special note has been the efficient provision of stores to RNZN ships while on station in the Indian Ocean.
DEFENCE SCIENCE AND ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING
This year a reorganisation has taken place with the merging of the Defence Scientific Establishment, EDP and associated directorates, including Analytical Studies and User Support, into the Science and EDP branch under an Assistant Secretary (Science and EDP). This reorganisation brings the science and computing-related activities in the Ministry of Defence under a central management organisation.
Electronic Data Processing
The new Defence mainframe computer has been fully operational since April 1982 when the last of the data processing application systems was converted to the Sperry Univac 1100/62E environment and the ICL rented machine was removed from the EDP Centre at Porirua.
The scheduled enhancement of the central facility has progressed in accordance with the 4 year contract agreement including the delivery of a third processor configured as a separate 1100/60 computer. This machine is currently installed at Porirua but as soon as site preparation is complete it will be moved to Auckland to give back-up and a local computing capability for Northern Region units.
A comprehensive data communications network has been established linking most major Defence locations with the computer at Porirua. Currently 40 terminals are connected to this network. In the coming year 42 additional terminals will be distributed in conjunction with the implementation of the Defence Supply System (Phase 1) which is nearing completion. A further 20 terminals will be added to expand access to current systems and general user software packages.
Scientific Research and Development
A series of fatigue tests on aircraft materials has been completed at the Defence Scientific Establishment (DSE). The results are providing a clearer understanding of the fatigue failures which occur in RNZAF aircraft. There is call for further study of the effects of the unique New Zealand operating conditions on military aircraft. Suitable airframe instrumentation is being investigated.
Techniques being developed at DSE for in-service monitoring of the condition of military gas turbine engines have aroused international interest This work offers a means of predicting failure and reducing maintenance costs. Additional analysis equipment has been made available from the United States through the Technical Co-operation Programme (TTCP) enabling the work to encompass a wider range of measurements.
Work on underwater acoustics systems has also been assisted by cooperation with Australia, Canada, Britain, and the United States under TTCP. A major joint experiment was conducted with HMNZS Tui in the South Fiji Basin in conjunction with the United States, to explore the relationship between storms and the associated underwater noise which affects the performance of submarine detection systems. The New Zealand area provides better conditions for this influential work than most other areas of the world.
Progress has also been made on the interpretation of trials data to establish the vertical directional properties of noise and acoustic signals in the ocean. This information is important for assessing which modern sonar systems will perform well in the New Zealand area. To provide for further measurements needed in this work, a programme to overhaul and update the DSE towed array system has been undertaken.
Preliminary experiments have been carried out to investigate the effects of the New Zealand coastal environment on the detection of sea mines. These initial experiments, using HMNZS Tui and with the co-operation of the RNZN Operational Diving Team, were located in the inner Hauraki Gulf. The techniques developed will be capable of application elsewhere in due course.
Two major feasibility studies for the services has been completed. One is the analysis of selected passive sonar systems for the RNZN, carried out with the assistance of HMNZ Dockyard. The other is an analysis of the options for providing automated command and control facilities which will assist the Army to operate more effectively with allied armies.
A prototype of an automated test equipment (ATE) for the Army underwent 2 successful user trials, in April and October 1982. The ATE system provides a cost-effective facility for the maintenance of army radios. Feasibility studies for the production of ATE systems by New Zealand industry were completed in January 1983.
THE DEFENCE COUNCIL
The Defence Council as at 31 March comprised:
The Rt Hon. D. S. Thomson, m.c.. e.d., Minister of Defence.
Vice Admiral Sir Neil Anderson, k.b.e., c.b., Chief of Defence Staff.
Mr D. B. G. McLean, m.s.c., M.A.(Oxon), Secretary of Defence.
Air Vice Marshal D. E. Jamieson, c.b.. o.b.e., Chief of Air Staff.
Rear Admiral K. M. Saull, C.B., Chief of Naval Staff.
Major General R. G. Williams, c.b., m.b.e., Chief of General Staff. The Secretary to the Treasury and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs are associate members of the Defence Council.
VISITORS TO NEW ZEALAND
A number of political leaders and senior defence officials visited New Zealand during the year. Among these were:
Admiral of the Fleet, Sir Terrence Lewin, g.c.b., m.v.o., d.s.o., Chief of Defence Staff United Kingdom.
Honourable Juan Ponce Enrile, Minister of National Defence, Republic of the Philippines.
Vice President G. Bush, Vice President of the United States of America.
Dr Edith Martin, Deputy Under Secretary of Defence Research and Technology, United States of America.
Mr Walter J. Stoessel, United States Deputy Secretary of State.
Lieutenant General W. J. Hilsman, U.S. Army, Director Defence Communications Agency.
U.K. Briefing Team led by Mr R. M. Hastie-Smith, Deputy Under Secretary of State, Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom.
Rear Admiral M. W. Hudson, Commander Australian Fleet.
Lieutenant General Sir Phillip Bennett, k.b.k., a.o., d.s.o., Chief of the General Staff, Australia.
Major General Sukotjo, Assistant for International Co-operation Staff (Askersin) Department of Defence and Security Indonesia (Hankam).
Air Marshal S. D. Evans, a.o., d.s.o., a.f.c. Chief of Air Staff, Australia.
Mr Caspar Weinberger, Secretary of Defense, United States of America.
Major General D. A. Drabsch, m.b.e., Commander 1st Australian Division.
Major General D. C. J. Deighton, m.b.e., Chief of Logistics, Australia.
Brigadier W. O. Rodgers, o.b.e., Director of Medical Services, Australian Army.
Brigadier General Todd P. Graham, U.S. Western Command, Deputy Commander/Chief of Staff.
Admiral Tsugio Yata, Chairman, Joint Staff Council, Japan Defence Agency.
Vice Admiral W. P. Lawrence. u.s.n., Commander Third Fleet.
Sir Frank Cooper, g.c.b., c.m.g., Permanent Under Secretary of State, Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom.
Mr Clive Whitmore, Permanent Under Secretary of State (Designate), Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom.
Vice Admiral C. Larkin, u.s.c.g., Commander in Chief, Pacific Region.
Congressman Joseph Addabbo, Chairman Congressional Defence Appropriation Sub Committee, United States of America.
Lieutenant General A. N. Braswell, u.s.a.f., Commander in Chief, Pacific Air Force.
General James P. Mullins, u.s.a.f., Commander, Air Force Logistics Command.
Vice Admiral J. H. Montpellier, Commander in Chief, French Forces Polynesia.
Field Marshal Sir Edwin Bramall, g.c.b., o.b.e., m.c., Chief of The Defence Staff, United Kingdom.
Major General M. E. Carleton-Smith, c.b.e., Head of British Defence Liaison Staff, Canberra.
A group from the National Defence College of Thailand led by Major General Sampandha Glinfuang and a group from the Royal College of Defence Studies led by Mr J. W. D. Margetson, c.m.g., visited New Zealand on study tours in April and September 1982, respectively. Naval ships from Australia, Canada, France, and United States visited New Zealand during the year.
The Ministry acknowledges with appreciation hospitality provided by various clubs, associations, industry, and private individuals to visiting personnel.