Extract from the report of the Naval Board of the Defence Council
period 1 April 1983 to 31 March 1984
New Zealand may seem to face no direct or perceptible military threat. But the future is unknown and unknowable. In a complex world, which is in a real sense threatening and dangerous, it would be folly to turn aside from the pursuit of peace, of serious-minded, constructive and effective defence policies. The strategic scene can and does change almost overnight. As historian Barbara Tuchman so succinctly put it “a twist occurs, someone sneezes, history swerves and takes another path”. Moreover, in today’s world the rapid conversion of industry and the training of men and women to transform a society from a peacetime footing to’ meet a strong military challenge, should it become necessary to do so, would be an infinitely more daunting and time-consuming task. Precautions must therefore be taken. This was the central theme of the 1983 Defence Review.
The Review squarely faces the limitations confronting a small nation in defending its interests and the reality of our relationships with large partners, particularly the United States and Australia. There are only 2 alternatives to an alliance-based Defence policy. For sound reasons the Review rejects the arguments of those who would take the extreme option of doing nothing. We are not and never have been a neutral country. An isolationist approach confers no strategic advantages and would be inconsistent with our wide ranging trade, economic and security interests. On the other hand to try to cover the whole waterfront would be equally absurd. We have neither the economic strength nor the scale. Instead, the Review focuses on the only realistic and clear-headed option available to New Zealand: the deterrence of any low-scale direct threat through the demonstration of a self-reliant ability to detect the approach of danger and a will to hit any hostile force before it arrives.
This limited national capability, however, must be backed by the wider range of force available through a working collective security arrangement. A potential aggressor then has to take into account not only the effectiveness of a national response but the likely reactions of our partners. The 1983 Review thus reaffirms the importance of our strategic linkages with Australia and the United States under the ANZUS Treaty. That Treaty is not the sole prop of the Government’s defence policies neither is it a military alliance. But it most certainly is a fundamental element in our overall foreign policies. It affords opportunities for consultation with the most powerful of our traditional friends, encompassing a wide range of matters affecting our security, including our economic security. It requires no supra-national political or military command structure, or allocations of forces on the pattern of the NATO military alliance. The commitment it embodies is to work together to provide peace and to consult in time of danger. What could be wrong with that? There are some who would say that its weakness is that it contains no guarantees. But for the two smaller parties its consultative nature with its commitment to cooperation in “the preservation of peace and security” is its ultimate strength. In military terms ANZUS requires only that the “parties separately and jointly by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid will maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack”. Again for a small country such an approach is rational and constructive. The security and defence policies espoused in the Review will ensure that the Government continues to meet this requirement.
Unfortunately the debate about ANZUS has become entangled with wider preoccupations over nuclear warfare. New Zealand is not a nuclear power and does not become one by association with nations that are. ANZUS is not a nuclear alliance. To suggest otherwise is nonsense. New Zealand is a signatory to the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty. The 1957 declaration by the Deputy Prime Minister (then Mr Holyoake) that New Zealand will not become a storage base for nuclear weapons has been recognised and honoured by successive governments as a fundamental tenet of our foreign and defence policies. Under the terms of ANZUS, the United States respects that sovereign stance).
The Government acknowledges the seriousness of nuclear proliferation. It does not underrate the urgency of achieving progress in halting the nuclear arms race and scaling down the arsenals. It recognises, however, that fundamental great-power interests are at stake. Resounding declarations and denunciations by New Zealand will not change the policies of the nuclear powers, or make the world a safer place. The superpowers’ principal strategic preoccupations are with each other. Disarmament can take place only within a framework that provides for the controlled and verifiable dismantling of the nuclear arms stockpiles of both sides.
Our strategic friendships, however, give us a channel of communication’ to the highest levels of the United States Government in which we can press our views on disarmament issues using sound and realistic arguments. I am convinced that what we say to the United States about nuclear arms reductions has more effect if we say it as an ally and a mend than if we were merely a detached bystander.
The Government will remain committed to receiving the naval vessels of our allies into New Zealand ports. Whether they are nuclear armed or not, none of the vessels which visit here are part of the strategic nuclear deterrent stance of the superpowers. Their arms do not constitute strategic weaponry, and it is only strategic weapons that would be involved in an ultimate confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. Only they contribute to the deterrent structure between the 2 superpowers and only ships with such weapons could conceivably be regarded as nuclear targets when visiting foreign ports. But such ships do not visit foreign ports; they do not reveal their whereabouts. Some have argued that the arming of Pacific Fleet vessels with Tomahawk or Cruise Missiles would change this situation, but the same conclusions apply. These are not intercontinental weapons; that is why the land-based Cruise Missiles have been placed in Europe rather than in the United States. There is no cause for the Soviet Union to risk the onset of global nuclear war simply to hit a non-strategic target in a New Zealand port.
To refuse entry to New Zealand ports to all nuclear powered and armed ships runs counter to New Zealand’s record as a reliable partner prepared to play a constructive and realistic role in support of the maintenance of security and stability in our region and beyond.
Our interlocking trade, political and security interests in South East Asia have been recognised for almost 30 years. Since 1955 we have had forces deployed in the region. Our forces initially in Malaysia and latterly in Singapore are a practical expression of our resolve to contribute to the maintenance of the security of the region. On my visits to South East Asia over the last 12 months I have been left in no doubt by the Singaporean and Malaysian Governments that New Zealand’s military presence in the region is regarded as a positive and welcome demonstration of support in these uncertain times. For these reasons the Government has concluded that it is not timely to bring the force home.
The same constructive approach to security issues led New Zealand to agree to take part in the multinational peacekeeping operation in the Sinai. The New Zealand contingent has made an important practical contribution to one of the very few successful peace initiatives in the Middle East in recent times. Our achievement in the Sinai is tribute indeed to the professionalism of our armed forces.
Closer to home, New Zealand’s policies in the South Pacific demonstrate that the Government takes seriously the responsibility to foster stability and encourage economic development in the region. We have backed that commitment by the immediate deployment of the Armed Services in relief operations in times of natural disaster; the provision of training assistance to local defence forces, including the development of both military and trade skills; surveillance assistance; hydrographic surveys; medical and dental support; and a variety of other civic action tasks. The 1983 Defence Review pledges a continuation of these policies and reiterates the Government’s determination to provide through the Armed Services the skills and equipment needed to assist in meeting the range of challenges which might arise. The Review focuses on the South Pacific. It emphasizes the need for effective monitoring and surveillance and suggests possible adjustments to the force structure in Air Force and Navy to this end. In particular it is suggested that submarines could prove to be a suitable platform for ocean surveillance and for deterrence of any seaborne threat to New Zealand and New Zealand economic interests. The Review also envisages restructuring of the New Zealand Army to permit a battalion group to be equipped and trained in New Zealand for deployment at short notice in support of New Zealand defence interests. Unfortunately this concept is a key one in any Army – has been totally misread to signify preparation for intervention in the affairs of island Governments. Any such supposition is tendentious nonsense. It is necessary for each of the Armed Services to be so structured as to permit flexible and graduated response to problems as they occur in peace and war. Our proposals for the structure of the Army are to that end. Similarly with Navy and Air Force we seek to give our small professional Armed Forces capabilities suited to the oceanic environment in which out interests could be challenged. These capacities within our Armed Forces in turn permit the Government to respond to requests from our partners in the Pacific for assistance with natural disasters. During the past few months for example New Zealand has provided military support for the Papua New Guinea Government with its precautions against a volcanic eruption in Rabaul, and for the Western Samoan Government to help suppress a serious and damaging forest fire on Savaii.
The debate on Defence issues which I have sought to encourage over the last 2 years has become more animated but at the same time more confused and on occasion ill-considered. Some of the critics of the Government’s defence policies have shown scant regard for strategic considerations or little concept of the problems faced by a small country like New Zealand. Patience and reason are required. The majority of New Zealanders are, I believe, informed, and their concerns are genuine and well-founded. Their voice is however often difficult to hear against the loud background noise from those who think that volume can take the place of substance and who are prepared to allow their judgement to become clouded by fashionable objections to involvement and populist sentiment against reality.
New Zealand cannot afford the luxury of opting out from international security issues. Nor ca we afford to face these issues alone. The Government has therefore sought to balance our own efforts with those of our allies and mends. The wider and most fundamental commitment we have to Pacific Basin security can in this way be covered at the same time as our own direct interests in our neighbourhood. The key is the maintenance of effective and flexible defence forces capable of adjustment as the need arises. At the same time it is necessary to maintain an active security relationship with our partners Australia and the United States and to maintain cooperative practical defence links with the armed forces of other countries with which we have shared strategic interests. New Zealanders have never stood aside from world affairs, and the Government does not propose to start doing so now.
Minister of Defence.
INTERNATIONAL DEFENCE RELATIONSHIPS ANZUS
The ANZUS alliance is based on and derives its strength from the broad community of cultural, political and strategic interests shared by the partners. The cooperative defence arrangements including the continuing programmes of exchanges, combine/d exercises and visits facilitated by the Treaty remain fundamental to the maintenance of the professional skills of the New Zealand Armed Forces and thus make a major contribution to the development of our national defence capability. Details of these programmes are referred to elsewhere in this report.
The first review of the ANZUS alliance since the Treaty was signed in 1951 dominated the agenda of the thirty-second meeting of the ANZUS Council held in Washington in July 1983. Following a thorough examination of international developments, strategic trends and the range of cooperative activities between the alliance partners, the review concluded that although the international political and strategic circumstances which prevailed in 1951 had changed, the Treaty still remains relevant and vitally important to the shared security concerns and strategic interests of the three partner Governments.
In the communiqué issued at the end of their meeting Ministers agreed that ANZUS consultative processes could be strengthened through further periodic ANZUS officials talks; pledged their commitment to continue and expand practical cooperation with countries of the South Pacific; noted the importance to the alliance and the region of continued access by allied aircraft and ships to airfields and ports in the South Pacific; and confirmed their commitment to the negotiation of effective, equitable and verifiable arms control measures including reductions of nuclear armaments.
Defence Co-operation with Australia
The most significant development in the defence relationship with Australia during the last twelve months was the signing in Wellington on 2 June by the Australian and New Zealand Ministers of Defence of a Memorandum of Understanding on Closer Defence Logistic Cooperation. In the spirit of cooperation in both defence and economic relations the agreement aims at strengthening the 2 countries’ respective defence capabilities through the development of a common industrial support base reflecting the concept that the 2 countries constitute a single strategic entity.
Following the conclusion of this agreement procedures providing for the reciprocal repair and maintenance of defence equipment in both countries were subsequently finalised and will form an annex to the Memorandum of Understanding. It is intended that administrative arrangements to facilitate local industry participation in major equipment projects will also be incorporated in the new agreement.
Australian and New Zealand Defence Ministers met again in Canberra in early March 1984 at the conclusion of the meeting of the Australia-New Zealand Consultative Committee on Defence Cooperation. They reviewed the wide range of combined defence activities in which the Australian and New Zealand defence forces are engaged, expressed their strong support for the further development of defence cooperation between their 2 countries and noted the progress that had been made in giving practical effect to the logistic cooperation agreement they had signed at their previous meeting. In particular they referred to collaboration in areas such as the small arms replacement project and arrangements for the New Zealand servicing of the LM 2500 engines for the RAN’s guided missile frigates and Australian repair and maintenance of RNZN missiles and torpedoes. They welcomed the conclusion of a Memorandum of Understanding between the RAN and the RNZN on the exchange of information relating to the procurement of a new class of submarines, and progress in enhancing trans Tasman defence and military communications and electronics cooperation.
The Ministers also expressed satisfaction with the close cooperation between the Australian and New Zealand contingents to the Sinai MFO and noted the close operational coordination between the 2 defence departments on the provision of assistance to regional countries.
Five Power Defence Arrangements In recognition of the contribution the Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) have made to the strengthening of regional security, and of the importance that Malaysia and Singapore continue to place on these collective security arrangements, New Zealand continues to play a full part in the FPDA. The Arrangements provide a useful framework for defence cooperation with Malaysia and Singapore and for combined exercises by the participating countries. The New Zealand armed forces took part in FPDA, air (VANGUARD) and maritime (STARFISH) exercises held during the year in Australia and South-east Asia and continue to provide an RNZAF officer for the staff of the headquarters of the Integrated Air Defence System at Butterworth, Malaysia, to which the Five Powers contribute.
New Zealand Presence in Singapore Significant changes in the strategic circumstances in South-east Asia since the publication of the 1978 Defence Review have necessitated a review of the announcement made in that document that the New Zealand Force South-east Asia (NZFORSEA) would eventually be withdrawn from its Singapore base. Security in the region now seems less assured than in 1978 and the continued presence of the Force is welcomed by the Governments of Singapore and Malaysia as a positive demonstration of support in unsettled circumstances. The presence of the Force in Singapore has also facilitated the development of mutual military assistance programmes tailored to our needs and those of our ASEAN partners, signifying our wider interest in the stability of the region. The Government believes that the retention of the Force in Singapore in the meantime is both constructive and appropriate.
In order to accommodate the development of a Ready Reaction Force based in New Zealand it will however be necessary to adjust the structure of NZFORSEA. 1st Battalion Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment (1RNZIR) is thus to be maintained at a lower manning level than at present, even though this will result in some reduction in its operational readiness. Nevertheless 1RNZIR will still be sustained as a viable infantry battalion and will continue to be charged with the development of the skills and tactics of jungle operations.
Mutual Assistance Programme The broad objectives of the Mutual Assistance Programme (MAP) are to develop practical cooperative working relationships with the Armed Forces of regional countries with which New Zealand has shared strategic interests; to make a modest contribution to the effectiveness of those armed forces through the provision of training assistance; and to assist in development projects by imparting engineering and trade skills and providing advice and supervisory assistance. The programme is thus a tangible expression of New Zealand’s concern with regional security. In return for the assistance provided the New Zealand Armed Forces gain wider training opportunities and the chance to practise specialist skills in other environments. Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, ~Philippines, Fiji, Papua New Guinea and Tonga currently participate in the MAP. Assistance is also provided to other South Pacific island states from time to time.
The MAP is designed to respond to the needs and priorities of regional countries. The nature and level of cooperation vary in accordance with the differing circumstances of our MAP partners. Assistance provided includes provision of training in New Zealand, the deployment of training and technical teams overseas and the attachment of a small number of New Zealand personnel mainly as instructors for tours of duty of up to 2 years’ duration. During the past twelve months 423 personnel received training in New Zealand.
Defence Co-operation with Nations in the South-west Pacific
The New Zealand Army continues to provide much of the specialist training required to prepare the Royal Fiji Military Forces (RFMF) personnel for service with the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon and with the Multi-National Force and Observers in the Sinai, and many of the 232 members of the RFMF who attended courses or received on-the-job training in New Zealand during the year subsequently took up peacekeeping duties in the Middle East. The emphasis in Army training was on Officer and NCO promotion courses, the development of administrative and infantry skills and instructional techniques, and the training of Field Engineers, carpenters and plant operators for employment in the RFMF’s Rural Development Unit. This unit undertakes the construction of schools, bridges, village development work and cyclone reconstruction tasks. The Naval. Division of the RFMF again received substantial training assistance and support from the RNZN which provided midshipman, seamanship, navigation, damage control, communications and cartography courses and patrol craft attachments.
The training programme in New Zealand is supplemented by the provision of instructional assistance in Fiji. Eight RNZN instructors conducted courses in communications, weapon maintenance, diving and underwater demolition, and damage control; an Army team provided training in ammunition storage and ammunition ‘blind’ disposal; and members of the Defence Psychological Unit provided assistance at 2 Reserve Officer Selection Boards. Three Army engineers are currently attached to the RFMF; an officer fills a staff appointment and 2 NCOs are instructors with the Trade Training School and the Rural Development Unit. A third NCO is attached to the RFMF as catering instructor and as an advisor on catering related aspects of the construction of the RFMF’s new Mess.
The Army and the RNZAF continue to use training areas in Fiji to maintain and develop skills required for operations in tropical conditions. Regular and Territorial Force personnel took part in 6 Army exercises. During one of these exercises members of the Army Medical Corps assisted the Fiji Health Department to conduct a primary health care programme with emphasis on the improvement of sanitary conditions and insect eradication. RNZAF Hercules and Andover aircraft and the Sioux and Iroquois helicopters took part in the RNZAF annual tropical exercise in Fiji. During this deployment aircraft were made available to assist the Fiji Government with rural development projects, and Iroquois helicopter crews trained RFMF soldiers in drills applicable to helicopter operations on land and at sea including casualty and medical evacuation procedures.
In July HMNZS Monowai returned to Fiji to complete a joint survey undertaken the previous year with Fiji’s Hydrographic Unit of a channel off the coast of Vanua Levu. This was the first joint survey to be undertaken by Fiji’s Hydrographic Unit and was an excellent example of practical cooperation between the RNZN and the Fiji Naval Division’s Hydrographic Unit. A further joint survey is planned for 1985.
RNZAF Orion aircraft undertook 4 fisheries surveillance flights carrying Fiji Government officials with surveillance responsibilities. In the course of one of these patrols an Orion undertook a combined search with the RFMF’s Naval Division for a vessel that had launched 2 dinghies found on Kadavu Island. A Taiwanese vessel was subsequently arrested. In May the Coordinator of the Fiji National Maritime Coordination Centre visited New Zealand to study New Zealand’s fisheries law enforcement and search and rescue procedures.
His Royal Highness Prince Lavaka-Ata and 21 other members of the Tonga Defence Services (TDS) attended courses at New Zealand defence training establishments during the year. The accent in this programme is on officer and NCO promotion and midshipman’s courses, the development of carpentry, basic field engineer and infantry skills, and vehicle mechanic and electrical apprenticeships. Two TDS students are currently studying computer science at Waikato University under the aegis of the MAP. Once they have completed their studies they will be tasked with setting up a national computer centre in Tonga. This training programme was complemented by the deployment of 2 RNZN training teams to Tonga to conduct courses in basic seamanship and coastal navigation. Other assistance provided under the MAP included the attachment to the TDS of a warrant officer as a vehicle mechanic instructor in the Trade Training School; the despatch to Tonga of two teams from the RNZN’s Fleet Maintenance Unit who carried out structural repairs to the TDS Maritime Squadron’s 2 patrol craft, repaired much of the electrical and electronic equipment in both vessels and trained TDS personnel in the maintenance of this equipment; the attachment of an armourer to inspect and repair TDS weapons and to develop proper stockholding procedures for small arms; and a course in international affairs concluded in Tonga by an officer from the staff of the RNZAF Command and Staff College. In February an RNZAF Orion landed at Tongatapu for the first time and following a briefing given to Tongan officials on surveillance matters 2 officials joined the aircraft for a resource protection patrol of Tonga’ s EEZ.
Papua New Guinea
Twenty.five of the 35 members of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF) who received training in New Zealand during the year attended a parachute refresher course as part of a programme to assist the PNGDF to develop a paratroop capability. Aircraft load-master, dental hygienist, navigator, yeoman and officer staff training was also provided. A New Zealand Army platoon commander and a platoon sergeant completed a 2 month exchange posting with the PNGDF in December. Their tasks included instructing their platoons in mortar handling and booby trapping. During the same period their PNGDF counterparts were attached to 2/lRNZIR in Burnham. Two New Zealand instructors continued their attachment to the directing staff of the PNGDF’s Defence Academy at Lae and physical training instructors conducted a course in PNG.
During HMNZS Canterbury’s visit to Port Moresby in April technical personnel from the ship carried out repairs to radar and radio equipment at the PNGDF’s landing craft base and the ship’s helicopter undertook aerial reconnaissance of defence training areas in the foothills of the Owen Stanley Ranges. On her way home HMNZS Canterbury reported the presence of 3 unauthorised Taiwanese clam vessels operating in PNG waters and carried out a brief survey of Pocklington Reef at the request of the PNG authorities.
In February an RNZAF C130 deployed to PNG to help in preparations for dealing with an expected volcanic eruption in Rabaul. In a period of 6 days the C130 carried 347 PNGDF and Police personnel to Rabaul and moved 130976 lbs of freight including trucks, tentage, rations, medical supplies, a generator and an emergency radio transmitter.
An RNZAF explosive ordnance disposal team completed an extensive deployment to Mangaia, Aitutaki, Mitiaro and Rarotonga in April to examine the condition of explosives stored on these islands for reef blasting operations. The team disposed of the explosives that were in a dangerous condition, and provided advice and assistance to local officials in the handling of such explosives-Orion aircraft undertook 4 fisheries surveillance patrols of the Cooks EEZ carrying Cook Island Government officers.
An RNZAF C130 aircraft carried Forest Service and Army communications personnel, a helicopter, communications and fire-fighting equipment to Savaii in Western Samoa in September to help fight a series of major forest fires on the island. The Iroquois flew a total of 26 hours during the 5 day operation deploying personnel and equipment to the areas of greatest need, assisting personnel on the ground to stem the flames through the use of a monsoon bucket, and carrying out survey flights over the area for the Prime Minister of Western Samoa, and members of his Cabinet. The Army communications team coordinated the efforts of widely spread fire fighting teams.
In July HMNZS Monowai undertook a 3 week survey of Funafuti harbour.
Defence Co-operation with the ASEAN States
The Singapore Mutual Assistance Programme is not large but there is close cooperation across a wide range of activities between NZFORSEA and the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF). Many of these activities would otherwise fall within the purview of the MAP. Current cooperation includes assistance with the introduction of war-gaming into SAF officer promotion courses and the attendance of Force personnel on SAF airborne continuation, jump master refresher and outward bound courses.
In June HMNZS Waikato and an RNZAF Orion took part in STARFISH 83, an FPDA maritime exercise held in the Singapore area involving maritime units of all 5 countries. In December Force personnel took part in Exercise TIGER BALM, a brigade headquarters Command Post Exercise involving SAF, NZFORSEA and US Army elements. Assistance provided under the MAP includes the attachment of an RNZAF qualified navigation instructor to the RSAF who is assisting with the establishment of a navigator’s school and conducting navigation training for C 130 and Skyvan pilots; and the attendance of 10 members of the SAF at pilot training, army officer promotion, initial officer training, physical education and advanced parachute courses.
NZFORSEA and the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) continue to cooperate closely. 1 RNZIR makes extensive use of training areas in southern Malaysia in order to maintain its professional standards, and the annual bilateral TAIAHA TOMBAK brigade level field exercises conducted in Malaysia provide valuable experience for our small force of major operational training. The RNZAF and the RMAF exercised together during the Five Power Integrated Air Defence System exercises and New Zealand continues to provide an officer for the Headquarters of the lADS at Butterworth in Malaysia. The RNZAF’s Singapore-based Iroquois detachment also exercised in Malaysia and members of the detachment received training in jungle survival techniques from MAF instructors. NZFORSEA provided helicopter support and platoons to act as enemy for field phases of courses conducted by the Malaysian Army Combat Training Centre at Pulada, assisted the MAF with the development of their own battlefield simulation system and conducted a sniper’s course for members of the Malaysian Police Field Force.
Fifty-five members of the MAF and 2 members of the Police Field Force attended a variety of training courses in New Zealand including officer promotion, parachute jump instructor, armament fitters, navigator and radio mechanics training and anti-armour, sniper, transport and gunnery instructor courses. Under the interchange programme an RNZN officer taught seamanship skills at the RMN’s Lumut naval base and an RMN officer continued an attachment to the RNZN’s Hydrographic Unit. Two NZ Army officers are instructing at the Malaysian: Army Combat Training Centre and a Malaysian cavalry officer, who was the first Malaysian Army officer to be attached to the NZ Army, completed a 2 year tour of duty with the School of Armour in Waiouru. After attending a series of courses he was employed as a technical officer with the Armoured Squadron and assisted with the introduction of the Scorpion at Unit level. He has been replaced by a Malaysian infantry officer who has been attached to the School of Infantry. In April an RNZAF pilot was attached to 12 Squadron RMAF to gain operational experience with a larger squadron and to assist RMAF flying instructors. In October an RMAF engineer began a seven-month attachment to the RNZAF to study Skyhawk overhaul and repair procedures and the application of computer systems in the engineering field.
In May a mobile dental team visited Jakarta to conduct courses in conservation and restorative dentistry for the Indonesian Defence Dental Institute as part of the Institute’s comprehensive dentistry programme. And ,in February 2 Army dental officers travelled to Jakarta to assist the Institute in the development of a revised curriculum for the comprehensive dentistry course. A New Zealand Army officer attended the 12-month Indonesian Army Staff College course. Twenty members of the Indonesian Armed Forces attended a variety of courses in New Zealand including dental training, Sky-hawk conversion, army instructor techniques and maritime surveillance techniques and procedures. In October HMNZS Waikato exercised with units of the Indonesian Navy in Selindo off the coast of Surabaya.
Emphasis on the training programme was again placed on on-the-job training in C130 maintenance and army officer promotion courses. In addition to the 16 members of the Royal Thai Armed Forces who received training in New Zealand during the year, 11 Thai officers visited New Zealand to examine Defence apprentice training systems, manpower planning, conditions of service and education management techniques. And students and directing staff of the Thai National Defence College visited New Zealand in April on a study tour.
Fourteen members of the Philippines Armed Forces received training in maritime surveillance techniques, the disposal of explosive ordnance and vehicle and weapons maintenance. In addition, the Mutual Assistance Programme sponsored the attendance of 8 Philippines Air Force pilots on an F-27 pilot simulator course conducted by Air New Zealand. In January an RNZAF officer became the second member of the New Zealand Armed Forces to attend the Philippines Armed Forces Command and General Staff College course. And the following month 4 Philippines officers visited New Zealand Defence training facilities and held discussions in Defence Headquarters on future training assistance.
Operations, Exercises and Training Exchanges
Sinai Multinational Force and Observers Since its establishment in 1982 the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) in the Sinai has successfully ensured that the terms of the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty are being met. MFO supervision of security arrangements has been an important factor in contributing to the stability of the Sinai. The Government has therefore agreed to a request from the Director-General of the MFO to continue its support for this peace initiative by extending New Zealand’s participation in the Force for a period of up to 2 years from March 1984, and arrangements have been made to renew the lease from the US Anny of two 2 UH-IH Iroquois helicopters operated by the New Zealand contingent in the Sinai. The Australian Government has also agreed to continue to participate in the MFO for a maximum period of 2 years.
Twenty-seven RNZAF and 2 New Zealand Army personnel are serving jointly with Australians in the MFO’s helicopter support unit, based at El Gorah, on a 6 month tour of duty. In addition there are 2 RNZAF officers, 4 Army officers and 1 Army Warrant Officer on the staff of the MFO headquarters on 12 month tours of duty. In December a five-man New Zealand Army driver training team was attached to the El Gorah Base to train the heavy vehicle operators of the Force’s Logistic Support Unit and to assist in the development of a training course for driving instructors, of a defensive driver training package for new arrivals in the force, and of a driver licence testing scheme. The team returned to New Zealand in February.
RNZN Indian Ocean Deployment New Zealand responded to a further request from the British Government for assistance with patrol duties in the Indian Ocean by attaching HMNZS Waikato to the Royal Navy’s Indian Ocean Task Group from mid June to mid September. This allowed the RN to divert 1 of their vessels for service in the South Atlantic and gave the ship’s crew a valuable opportunity to operate as an integral part of a Task Group. The British Government has been informed that because of refit requirements and other commitments it will not be possible to make a further contribution to the Task Group. While in the Indian Ocean HMNZS Waikato made port calls to Colombo, Djibouti, Suez, Jeddah, Muscat, Mauritius, La Reunion, Mombasa and the Seychelles.
Major Exercises The major ANZUS exercise for the year, Exercise KANGAROO 83, was conducted in eastern and western Australian exercise areas from 12 September-17 October. HMNZS Canterbury, Orion, A-4 Skyhawk and Andover aircraft as well as an infantry detachment of 119 men from 2/1 Battalion, Burnham, 30 SAS personnel and an Army Communications detachment participated in the exercise which involved naval, air and land forces from Australia and the US.
The RNZN and the RNZAF also participated in 5 Power maritime and air exercises. HMNZS Waikato and 1 Orion aircraft deployed to the South China Sea for STARFISH III-83, a FPDA maritime exercise involving naval forces from Australia, the United Kingdom, Singapore and Malaysia which was held from 3-11 June. And in September 8 Skyhawks deployed to RMAF Base Butterworth for Exercise VANGUARD, a major FPDA air defence exercise. Following this exercise the aircraft undertook bilateral training exercises with an RMAF F-5 squadron.
Exercise HUNUA PASS was the first of 2 major Army exercises conducted during the year. The exercise was held at Papakura from 25-28 October and was designed to practise formation headquarters in command and staff procedures (including operational administration) at formation and joint agency level, and formation and unit commanders and staff in the tactics of the deliberate attack.
Exercise NORTHERN SAFARI was conducted on Great Barrier Island from 5-28 March. The aim of this exercise was to mobilize the New Zealand Army Ready Reaction Force and practise selected elements in air/sea deployment and the conduct of operations. The exercise was supported by overseas contingents comprising HMAS Tobruk, a company of the Gurkha Regiment based in Hong Kong which acted as the enemy for the exercise, and an Australian engineer squadron.
Following her participation with US and Australian naval and air Units in Exercise AUCKEX from 18-23 March HMNZS Waikato also took part in NORTHERN SAFARI. Exercise CAPTIVE LIGHTNING, an annual deployment of Hawaii based United States Army personnel, took place in June 1983. A 600-man contingent from the 1/19 Infantry Battalion of 25(US) Infantry Division conducted cold weather training at Waiouru. New Zealand Army liaison and logistic personnel were attached to the contingent for the duration of the exercise. And in the same month a contingent of 60 personnel from 1 Task Force Region deployed to Hawaii to participate in Exercise TROPIC LIGHTNING 2/83 with 25(US) Infantry Division. The primary objective for the New Zealand contingent was to exercise a formation headquarters within a US Army divisional setting. Their training included the practice of command and staff procedures related to tactical and logistic planning and operations.
RNZAF Orion aircraft deployed to Hawaii, the West Coast of the US and Japan to practise anti-submarine warfare techniques.
Other Exercises, Training, Exchanges and Operations
HMNZS Otago conducted passage exercises with USS Texas while the latter ship was in New Zealand waters in August. In September HMNZS Waikato took part in Exercise SEUNDO 83 with Indonesian naval units in the Java Sea, following the completion of her deployment to the Indian Ocean HMNZS Canterbury in company with the HMS Invincible Task Group conducted passage exercises from 2125 November enroute to Wellington and from 28-30 November in transit from Wellington to Auckland.
SQUADEX 84 was held in Auckland exercise areas from 16-23 January and HMNZ Ships Canterbury, Waikato, Monowai, Tui, Hawea, Pukaki, Rotoiti, Moa, Koura, Kuparu and HMAS Oxley took part.
The Army again took part in a series of individual and sub-unit exchanges designed to broaden the military experience and knowledge of the servicemen selected and to promote wider cooperation with the larger armies of our allies. These exchanges include:
(a) Exercise LONG LOOK. Between August and December 1983, 31 New Zealand soldiers were attached to British Army units in the United Kingdom and British Army of the Rhine (BAOR) in Germany while 31 British soldiers served in New Zealand Army units.
(b) Exercise ANZAC EXCHANGE. During 1983, 10 soldiers served in Australian Army units for periods ranging from 1 to 4 months under this continuing programme.
(c) Exercise PALEX. Between September and December 1983, 3 senior non-commissioned officers were attached to United States Army units in Hawaii while the New Zealand Army hosted United States Army personnel.
(d) Exercise PACIFIC PACK. This is an annual exercise involving a 48-man unit exchange between the New Zealand Army and a Hawaiian based United States Army unit. This year the exchange was between a group from 16th Field Regiment, RNZA and members of 1/8 Field Artillery Battalion of the 25 (US) Infantry Division. This exercise provided participants with the opportunity for familiarisation with each Army’s equipment and operational doctrine.
(e) Exercise TASMAN RESERVE. This is a reciprocal exchange between Australian Reserve and New Zealand Territorial Force infantry contingents. 120 all ranks from 7 Battalion (Wellington/Hawkes Bay), RNZIR deployed to Australia to train with 5(AS) Brigade in the Singleton area from 11-28 March. 4 Battalion (Otago and Southland), RNZIR hosted the Australian contingent from 14-29 January. This contingent comprised 120 all ranks drawn from 1/19 Battalion Royal New South Wales Regiment.
(f) Exercise PACIFIC RESERVE. Ten New Zealand Territorial Force personnel participated in United States Reservist training with the 100th Battalion, 442 Infantry (US) Army Reserve at the Pokakuloa training area on the island of Hawaii, from 16-30 July 1983.
(g) Exercise TASMAN Exchange. Over the period 27 February-28 March 1984 118 personnel from the 3 Field Squadron, RNZE, deployed to Australia to train with 7 Field Squadron, RAE, in the Brisbane area.
The TROPIC series of 6 exercises was again held in Fiji. As in previous years the exercises provided an opportunity to train soldiers in basic all-arms soldiering and in individual military skills and practice in close country battle craft in a tropical environment.
In March/April, 1st Battalion, RNZIR (1 RNZIR) based in Singapore participated in Exercise TAIAHA TOMBAK in Malaysia, an annual Malaysian Army brigade level exercise designed to practise conventional warfare skills in a tropical environment. An infantry company comprising mainly Territorial Force personnel deployed from New Zealand to Singapore/Malaysia and was integrated with 1 RNZIR for this exercise.
Twelve Royal New Zealand Armoured Corps personnel travelled to Australia to carry out on-the-job training with the Leopard main battle tank (Exercise LEOPARD LEARNER). And small groups of officers participated in command post exercises held in Australia.
In February 8 New Zealand Army officers took part in the annual Exercise TEAM SPIRIT as part of the Divisional Headquarters of 25(US) Infantry Division. After initial preparation in Hawaii, they deployed to the Republic of Korea to exercise with the ROK Army’s 3rd Corps. 2 RNZAF officers attended this exercise as observers.
The annual anti-submarine warfare exercise between New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the UK was held in Canada in October 1983, and the Fincastle Trophy was won by the New Zealand crew for the second consecutive year. During the year 1 Orion aircraft exercised with Australian maritime units in the TAMEX-83 series of exercises. In April and late August, 1 Andover aircraft was deployed to Australia to take part in the tactical air transport series of exercises, SHORTHAUL-83.
ROUTINE OPERATIONS AND ACTIVITIES
New Zealand Area
In April HMNZS Otago visited Camp bell and the Antipodes Islands carrying personnel from various Government Departments and their stores. Otago subsequently made farewell visits to Nelson, Wellington and Dunedin before being placed in extended reserve on 25 November 1983. HMNZS Canterbury visited the Campbell and Auckland Islands in January and the following month HMNZS Waikato acted as guardship for the Waitangi Day celebrations in the Bay of Islands.
In addition to its Naval diving commitments, the Operational Diving Team (ODT) provided 5248 diving man hours in assistance to Government Departments and local bodies. These included Ministry of Works and Development, Ministry of Transport, New Zealand Police, Accident Compensation Commission (5 cases of decompression sickness), DSIR, and the Hauraki Gulf Maritime Park Board. The ODT also devoted 820 diving man hours to explosive ordnance disposal tasks including the recovery and safe disposal of 235 deteriorated 5 inch shells from 80 feet of water at Little Barrier Island.
As in previous years, Army engineers carried out numerous small tasks in support of local and central government bodies, schools, sporting and charitable organisations. Tasks undertaken ranged from assistance to the Police in the use of mine detectors to locate car parts to the construction of an earthworks dam in the Raetihi district for the New Zealand Acclimatisation Societies.
The RNZAF provided 200 hours of helicopter support for Police efforts to detect and destroy cannabis plantations. In addition, assistance was also provided for the training of the Police armed-offenders and anti-terrorist squads. RNZAF helicopter resources were also employed in a support role at both Auckland and Wellington during the August visit of USS Texas. During the same month the RNZAF’s fixed wing transport aircraft provided an emergency airlift across the Cook Strait following industrial action over the visit of USS Texas. In January air transport was provided in support of the flood relief operations at Invercargill.
Search and Rescue The RNZAF flew 362 hours on search and rescue operations which included major searches for light aircraft and for yachts returning from the Auckland to Suva race. Thirty people were airlifted to safety from 78 separate incidents. Throughout the year a 2-hour standby capability was maintained by both helicopters and fixed wing aircraft. RNZN ships were also involved in search and rescue operations most of which were for missing vessels.
Fisheries Protection As its contribution to the management of New Zealand’s fishing resources Defence carries out surveillance and policing of foreign fishing activities to the 200’mile limit of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
These duties in the territorial sea and EEZ were again undertaken by the Patrol Craft Squadron, comprising HMNZ Ships Pukaki, Hawea, Taupo and Rotoiti, and by the frigates HMNZ Ships Canterbury, Waikato and Otago with assistance from the RNZAF. Other RNZN vessels reported on the activities of foreign fishing vessels during the course of their normal duties. One hundred and thirty-five courtesy and investigatory boarding’s were conducted by the RNZN during the year. A total of 752 hours were flown by RNZAF Orion and Friendship aircraft on resource protection patrols. In addition, a further 333 hours were flown in combined surveillance/resource protection patrols.
Antarctica The RNZAF and the Army again supported the United States National Scientific Foundation’s Antarctica research programme during the period October 1983-February 1984. During November and December the RNZAF made 14 return trips to McMurdo Sound, delivering 146 979 kgs of freight and carrying 302 persons.
A cargo handling team of 16 Army personnel deployed to Antarctica in early October and was relieved by a second team in December. Continuity in command appointments was provided by an officer and a warrant officer who remained in Antarctica for the entire summer season. During this season, the Terminal Operations Centre at McMurdo handled in excess of 2 million kilograms of cargo and the attachment provided realistic and valuable training for the Army teams.
At the request of the Antarctic Division, DSIR, a team of RNZE tradesmen was again employed on the rebuilding programme at Scott Base. This year the programme included the completion of the interior of the command centre, the erection of the shell for the geomagnetic laboratory, and the construction of an observation tower and a tank stand.
Hydrographic Survey HMNZS Monowai began the year with the initial stages of a resurvey of Cook Strait in preparation for the publication of a larger scale chart of the Strait and the approaches to Wellington. The survey was hampered by unusually adverse weather conditions which considerably restricted both boat work and ship operations, and progress was much slower than expected.
Monowai returned to Auckland for assisted maintenance in early April and then deployed to the South Pacific for a resurvey of the Lagoon at Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu, and the completion of the 1982 Vanua Levu survey in Fiji.
Following her annual refit Monowai participated with other RNZN ships in the annual SQUADEX exercise in January 1984 and then carried out a resurvey of Bluff Harbour in conjunction with the inshore survey craft HMNZS Tarapunga and Takapu in preparation for the publication of a new edition of the chart of the Bluff Harbour. In late February Monowai returned to Wellington to resume the re-survey of Cook Strait.
The inshore survey craft devoted most of the year to a re-survey of Foveaux Strait. This project has also been badly affected by the weather and will not now be completed before April 1984. A new large scale chart of Foveaux Strait will then be published. The craft also surveyed the entrance to Riverton Harbour at the request of local authorities.
A survey was also carried out in conjunction with the Water and Soil Division of the Ministry of Works and Development of the Approaches to Tairua Harbour in the eastern Coromandel.
Changes to charts arising from the introduction of the IALA Maritime Buoyage System, Region A, have now been completed with the exception of the Otago Harbour chart on which recently received survey data is still being incorporated. In addition, the Hydrographic Office published four new metric charts to replace the single fathom chart of the Approaches to Napier and Napier Harbour while the fathom charts of Rauoterangi Channel and Kapiti Island, and Rangauna Bay and Awanui River Approaches, have been replaced by new metric charts. Publication of 2 new charts, Cape Rodney to Moturoa Island and Kawau Island to Rangitoto Island, has given improved coverage for navigation in the western areas of Hauraki Gulf A new edition of NZ 200 Chart Catalogue and Index containing new symbols now appearing on New Zealand charts as the result of the introduction of the International Hydrographic Specifications, was also produced.
During the year, a total of 7 new charts (plus NZ 200), 5 new editions and 32 reprints and revisions were published. Sales to the shipping industry, and the public, together with service issues, totalled 57 803 charts (all fully corrected) and 4583 navigational books. Twenty-five thousand copies of the Weekly Notices to Mariners (containing 340 Notices) and 600 copies of the Annual Summary were published, and 280 long range Navigation Warnings were issued for the South Pacific area.
At the request of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs further work was undertaken by the Hydrographic Office in conjunction with the US Department of State on EEZ maritime boundaries between Niue and American Samoa.
The Tidal Section of the Hydrographic Office continued to provide tidal analysis data and predictions to other Government Departments, Harbour Boards and civil engineers, and completed a number of computer programs to assist in analysis and prediction work and to present tidal predictions for high and low waters in the accepted Admiralty format. The Section also compiled tidal data for eventual publication on hydrographic charts, and prepared secondary and standard port tidal information for publication in the annual New Zealand Nautical Almanac.
Recruitment and Retention
All 3 Services recorded a substantial reduction in the rate of release this year. Army recruiting has attracted a significant increase in enquiries while Air Force enquiries remained at the same level as the previous year. On the other hand there has been a reduction in the number of Navy enquiries. Although the services have been able to meet their targets in most categories the Navy is still unable to attract a sufficient number of suitable recruits to study for engineering degrees before being commissioned as engineering officers.
Conditions of Service
In conformity with the wage price freeze regulations no change has been made to pay rates or allowances for servicemen with the exception of overseas allowances where currency fluctuations have necessitated adjustment.
Education continues to play an important role in military and trade training activities in the Services. In addition service personnel have shown an increasing interest in undertaking voluntary educational study over a wide spectrum of academic and technological disciplines. The provision of psychological services and research assistance to the Armed Forces has been maintained by the Defence Psychology Unit, with-activities centred on the selection, placement and training of personnel. There has been a significant increase in emphasis on both the development of selection procedures for specialist groups reflecting their different requirements and the desirability of keeping the training failure rate to a minimum. Over the year assistance in the form of selection board support has been provided to the Ministry of Transport and the Royal Fiji Military Forces, and the Unit has also assisted with university study programmes. Defence chaplains make a major contribution to service welfare, not only in the provision of religious services, worship, sacraments and moral education, but also in a wide range of pastoral care activities.
The medical and dental services continue to provide a high standard of care. As mentioned earlier in the Report dental assistance was given during the year to the Indonesian Defence Dental Institute and the Papua New Guinea Defence Force and a dental officer acted as a consultant for a dental course in Niue which was conducted under the auspices of the South Pacific Commission.
The Services continue to encourage participation in sport for both general recreation and in competitive environments. Inter-unit and inter-service tournaments were held in all major codes and Combined Services teams again competed in national tournaments.
The Army Garrison Institute, as a subsidiary of the Armed Forces Canteen Council, provides a range of welfare trading facilities on camps. Trading figures continue to improve, indicating that soldiers and their dependants are taking advantage of the services provided.
The Army Central Welfare Fund continues to derive most of its income from the Army Garrison Institutes profits. The fund operates the Army Leave Centres, subsidises Army sport, provides welfare facilities not funded by the Public Account and makes compassionate grants and loans. In the past year it also sponsored 6 young people on Outward Bound courses.
The Army Group Insurance Plan, which has been in operation since 1980, currently has 2885 soldier members and 898 spouse members. In July 1983 the insurance cover was extended from $20,000 to $30,000 and the majority of members opted for the higher cover.
A major development in this field was the implementation of the Armed Forces Discipline Act 1971 (AFDA). The Act came into force on 1 December 1983. The New Zealand Armed Forces now have a common system of law and justice which replaces the outdated Army and RNZAF Acts of 1950 and dispenses with the requirement for the Naval Discipline Act 1957 (UK). It was not possible, however, to achieve uniformity in the procedure for summary trial and punishment under the AFDA as it was not considered practicable to provide defenders for Army and Air Force personnel at summary hearings. The new service law has been promulgated in a 2 volume ‘Manual of Armed Forces Law’.
In the past year 360 personnel attended overseas courses of varying lengths, mostly at military training establishments in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. As in the past emphasis was on initial officer, post graduate, technical, and application training, with staff college specialist and management courses being offered to selected officers. Specialist servicemen also undertook training overseas that will assist the armed forces to assess changes in operational doctrine and technology, thereby helping to maintain expertise in various professional military fields. Overseas training costs continued to rise and courses were closely scrutinised to ensure that they are essential and cannot currently be conducted in New Zealand. The number of personnel serving on overseas exchanges remained at 17; such exchanges are designed to sustain particular operational skills, to train officers for specific posts on their return to New Zealand, and to broaden the military experience of selected personnel.
During the year 2113 male and female regular personnel undertook training courses varying in length from half a day to 1 year. This included 92 new entry trainees, 1876 basic branch trainees/ advanced or refresher trainees, and 145 officers, of whom 2 graduated from University under the degree scheme. As in previous year’s naval personnel from Fiji, Tonga, PNG and Malaysia attended courses in New Zealand under the aegis of the Mutual Assistance Programme. In addition a total of 295 RNZNVR and 139 Sea Cadet personnel were given training at HMNZS Tamaki, during the Christmas and school holiday periods. And 29 personnel from the Army and Air Force, 163 from HMNZ Dockyard and 32 from other Government Departments were also trained by the RNZN during the year. The completion of the design of the Junior Officer Common Training Course marked a further significant step in the implementation of the systems approach to training in the RNZN, courses were conducted in Instructor techniques, and the analysis and design of training. The ANZAC short-term exchange programme continued successfully.
Sixty-five officers were commissioned into the New Zealand Army during the year, including 6 graduates from the Royal Military College Duntroon, 12 from the Officer Cadet School Portsea, 21 from the Officer Cadet Training Company at Waiouru, and 26 as Quartermaster and specialist officers. Two thousand six hundred and eighty two Regular and 26.5 Territorial Force Army personnel received individual training on a total of 288 courses conducted by Army School and Depots. In addition 366 Regular Force and 671 Territorial Force soldiers qualified on recruit training courses conducted at Waiouru and Burnham. The Army also accepted personnel from the Navy, Air Force and Police on courses. A total of 196 soldiers from ASEAN and South Pacific nations were trained in Army establishments under the Mutual Assistance Programme.
During the year 26 officers graduated from aircrew courses. A further 21 ground officers were also commissioned into the RNZAF. Forty-one officers completed junior staff training including officers from the RNZN, Fiji and PNG. Eleven RNZAF, 4 New Zealand Army, 1 RNZN, 1 Philippines officer, 1 Thai and a PNGDF officer as well as a Police officer and a public servant graduated from the RNZAF’s Senior Command and Staff College course. The RNZAF conducted 150 ground training courses from which 700 personnel successfully graduated.
A total of 66 RNZNVR Officers and 226 ratings completed whole-time service in RNZN ships and training schools during 1983. In addition, 7 personnel on the RNZN’s Special Service List served for periods of up to 6 months during 1983. The RNZNVR currently has a strength of 436 personnel. Two of the RNZNVR’s motor launches reached the end of their economic life during 1983 and were withdrawn from service. Of the remaining 2 vessels only 1 can operate beyond harbour limits. The RNZN expect to phase both these vessels out of service by 1985. The first of the new RNZNVR inshore patrol craft HMNZS Moa was delivered to the RNZN by Whangarei Engineering Company in November and following ‘first of its class’ trials was commissioned and delivered to the Dunedin RNZNVR Division HMNZS Toroa in late January. The remaining 3 craft will be built and delivered to the RNZN at 6 monthly intervals. During the year the RNZNVR took part in the Naval Control of Shipping Exercise ROLL CALL 83, and was associated with the visits of the United States ships Texas and Phoenix, the Royal Navy Task Group and the Chilean Barquentine Esmeralda.
Young Persons Training Scheme The Armed Services began providing training for young unemployed people under the Department of Labour’s Young Persons Training Programme (YPTP) in February. It is intended that about 500 young men and women will attend courses of about 5 months duration which will emphasise physical fitness, confidence building, and the acquisition of selected basic on-military skills such as driving, clerical work, cooking, first aid, stores work, and woodworking. and welding which have employment potential. A total of 186 young persons entered Defence establishments for training under this scheme in February and March.
DEFENCE MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION Accommodation The refurbishment of the 6th floor in the Stout Street Departmental Building has been completed and senior executive staff moved from the 1st floor into the new accommodation in June 1983. Negotiations are currently taking place with the State Services Commission to obtain accommodation for personnel transferring from Auckland following changes to the Army’s force structure which are referred to elsewhere in this report.
Management and Support Services During the year, the management support services available to the Ministry were enhanced. Management services, internal audit, staff training and establishment and inspection services have been coordinated and the use of management audit as a management tool and review mechanism was introduced. Reviews included the Army B Vehicle Project and the professional engineering requirements of HMNZ Dockyard.
Late in 1983 Mr D. Omand, an Assistant Secretary in the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence who has been involved in the introduction of management audit concepts in his own Ministry, spent 3 weeks in New Zealand advising on the further development of Defence’s management support concept. His report is now under study.
REORGANISATION OF COMMAND AND
The 1978 Review proposed that a small ready reaction force be created backed by a broad range of units comprising both Regulars and reserve cadres to maintain the framework needed to expand to Brigade size. This concept proved to be too imprecise. Although designed to establish a framework for expansion no definite structure was established above battalion group level. The lack of definition of the framework force caused too great a share of resources to be tied up in infrastructure rather than in operational elements. Changes in the Army’s force structure will permit more personnel and resources to be allocated to operational rather than support roles. The Army will now establish a deployable battalion group of 1000-1200 regular force personnel, based in Burnham and maintained at full strength and a high state of operational readiness. It will be equipped and trained for land operations up to a scale appropriate to the circumstances of the South Pacific. Centred on an infantry battalion it will include a battery of field artillery, a light armoured reconnaissance unit and sufficient supporting arms and services to confer operational self-sufficiency. These changes will result in a reduction in the manning level of the battalion currently based in Singapore, but the battalion and the New Zealand national command headquarters structure in Singapore will be sustained as an operationally viable, if modest, force.
The Army’s command structure is also being adjusted to distinguish more clearly the separate roles of operations and base support training. There has been an internal reorganization within the Army General Staff and New Zealand Land Forces Command in Takapuna has been split into a Land Force Command and a Support Command.
Land Force Command which will comprise 1st Task Force in the North Island and the 3rd Task Force in the South Island will assume responsibility for operational forces, Territorial Force manpower management and collective training. Support Command which will comprise 3 elements; the Army Training Group in Waiouru, the Force Maintenance Group (FMG) based in Linton, and Base Area Wellington (BAW) based in Trentham, will assume responsibility for individual training, third line logistics and base support. Headquarters Land Force Command will remain at Takapuna, and Headquarters Support Command will be moved to Palmerston North.
Logistic/Supply Co-operation As mentioned earlier in this report a new Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Closer Logistic Cooperation with Australia was signed in June and agreement has been reached on the terms of an annex to the MOU covering arrangements for the reciprocal repair and maintenance of defence equipment in both countries. The conclusion of this MOU is a significant milestone in defence logistic support and supply cooperation between Australia and New Zealand. The MOU on Logistic Support concluded between New Zealand and the United States in June 1982 was reviewed and agreement reached with the United States on the preparation of annexes to the MOU on cooperation in service air transportation and in communications and electronics. Senior Defence logistic officers attended the Pacific Area Senior Officers Logistic Seminar (PASOLS) held in Australia and the Project Development Group, the working committee tasked with researching and developing policy matters for PASOLS, which was held in Hawaii. These forums provide a valuable opportunity for our logistic experts to discuss common problems and to examine new developments in the logistics field.
Capital Works and Maintenance New Capital Works guidelines were introduced during the year, which give priority to operational works, living, working and training accommodation and facilities. Construction of additional houses for Defence was again deferred pending the completion of an overall Government review of housing policy. Defence was also affected by current Government policy limiting the construction and acquisition of housing in urban areas. One house within the Waiouru Camp area was purchased from a private commercial owner. Ongoing maintenance costs remain a problem and increased emphasis had to be given to the replacement of major underground services particularly water, sewage, electrical and telephone reticulation. Through competitive tender, however, the Ministry was able to carry out more work than originally planned.
Substantial progress was made on a number of capital works projects during the year including the renovation and upgrading of buildings and facilities at various camps and bases as part of a planned Special Maintenance Programme. Within the Naval Command, the new Naval Sports Complex at Ngataringa Bay was completed as was the new roof on the Cruiser Block barrack accommodation at Philomel. At Tamaki, upgrading of barrack accommodation for new recruits was completed. Approval has been obtained for the construction of a new outpatients block at the RNZN Hospital. Good progress continues to be made on the new Calliope South Wharf which is now 30 percent complete.
At RNZAF Base Auckland, Whenuapai, improvements were made to the Combined Mess and Kitchen, new hardstandings adjacent to No 4 Hangar were provided, the Operation Support Centre complex was completed and extensions to the Hospital/Dental Section are progressing. And at Hobsonville, renovations to the Officers’ Mess kitchen were completed, a helicopter paint spray booth was provided and improvements made to the General Engineering Flight work accommodation.
At Waiouru, work is continuing on the Fire Support Vehicle workshops and the new Officers’ Mess. The new Senior NCOs’ Mess, Junior Ranks’ Barracks, Field Miniature Range for Fire Support Vehicles and the extension of the medium temperature hot water heating system to the industrial area have all been completed. Approval has been obtained for the Stage 11construction of a new entrance road to Waiourn Camp. Within the Waiouru Training Area, work on controlling pinus contorta infestation is continuing.
Work is progressing on the Weapons Preparation building at RNZAF Base Ohakea and approval is held for the refurbishment of a further 3 wings of the Main Airmens Barracks. A new Headquarters building for the 6th Field Squadron, RNZE, has been completed at Petone. Approval was obtained for the provision of a new Combined Mess at Shelly Bay and at Fort Dorset renovation and modernisation of a 50 bed barrack block is progressing. Rebuilding and renovation of the Airmen’s Club at RNZAF Base Woodboume was completed and further improvements were made to the base’s technical training accommodation. The construction of a new gymnasium is under way at RNZAF Base Wigram as is the relocation and upgrading of a barrack block, and extensions to and refurbishment of the Senior NCOs’ Mess were completed.
Equipment and Supply Support
Updated weapons sensor and communications equipment is being fitted to HMNZS Wellington during her major refit which is being carried out at HMNZ Dockyard Auckland. HMNZS Southland, which entered RNZN service in 1983, underwent a minor refit in the United Kingdom which included the fitting of new sonar detection equipment. Other new sensor and communications equipment is being fitted on other RNZN ships to update and replace old and unserviceable items.
The Army “B” Vehicle replacement programme is proceeding on time and within budget. The Army took delivery of further Landrover and Mercedes Benz vehicles during the year. The Army’s 124 operational motorcycles have been delivered and will enter service during the forthcoming year after servicemen have been trained in their operation and maintenance. Prototype ISO containers have also been received and are being evaluated. The containers are to be fitted out to a variety of specifications for use in the roles of workshops, communications shelters and command posts. Prototype multi-axle trailers for use with the 40 tonne Unimog and 8.0 tonne Mercedes Benz vehicles are under construction and will be evaluated on delivery. All 26 Scorpion tracked combat reconnaissance vehicles are now in service. The overhaul of the M113 armoured personnel carrier family of vehicles continues using Ministry of Works and Development resources at Turangi.
The age and lack of spares for some of the Army’s equipment continue to pose difficulties and there is now an urgent need for replacement of some items, such as the 5.5 inch guns, for which ammunition lines are no longer being produced. Replacement small arms and camouflage, communication, engineer air defence and artillery equipment are currently being evaluated.
All 4 additional Wasp helicopters have been delivered and follow. ing refit at RNZAF Base Woodbourne are now in operational service. The second Boeing 727 aircraft completed its major servicing and refit and is fully operational. As part of the structural studies of the Skyhawk A4/T A4K aircraft, a spare wing was purchased and subsequently refurbished in the United States. After delivery of this wing the RNZAF will proceed with a wing refurbishment programme on the Skyhawk fleet. British Aerospace and the RAF are assisting with structural studies on the Strikemaster aircraft. These studies fonn part of a project to develop long term structural management of the Strikemaster.
The P3B Orion modernisation programme at Seattle has been completed and the first updated aircraft returned to New Zealand late in 1983. The remainder of the fleet have been undergoing refit by Air New Zealand, and four aircraft have now been returned to service. Proposals for the second phase of the update have been requested from interested contractors.
Defence has the largest Government inventory both in terms of stock lines and inventory value. It ranks third in departmental supply expenditure, behind the Railways Corporation and the Ministry of Works and Development. The Defence supply management system is being upgraded in a 2-part operation, All retail and wholesale stockholding accounts are being brought ‘on line’ to the Ministry’s Sperry Computer to replace an obsolete paper tape data transfer and ledger card system, and the system itself is being reviewed and re-developed to introduce modem inventory management techniques and methods. This will be a more efficient and cost effective system which will also improve weapons support performance. Defence has also been given approval to operate as a purchasing department and procedures have been put in place to reflect the department’s new responsibilities. A Defence Contracts Officer has been appointed in Defence Headquarters together with a small staff with responsibility for ensuring Government Stores Board procedures are followed in the handling of Defence equipment supply contracts. A total of 261 declarations of obsolete and unserviceable stores and equipment were made to the Government Stores Board during the year. These included consignments of scrap metal sold for $83,868, the frigate Taranaki sold as scrap for $82,000, surplus clothing sold for $74,000 and torpedo batteries sold for $61,200. In addition the Ministry disposed of 413 vehicles which were beyond economic repair.
THE DEFENCE COUNCIL
The Defence Council as at 31 March comprised:
The Rt Hon D. S. Thomson, M.C.,E.D.,Minister of Defence.
Air Marshal D. E. Jamieson, C.B.,O.B.E.,Chief of Defence Staff.
Mr D. B. G. McLean, M.Sc,M.A.(Oxon), Secretary of Defence.
Major General R. G. Williams, C.B.,M.B.E.,Chief of General Staff.
Air Vice MarshalD.M.Crooks,O.B.E.,Chiefof Air Staff.
Rear Admiral C.J. Steward, Chief of Naval Staff.
The Secretary to the Treasury and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs are associate members of the Defence Council.
VISITORS TO NEW ZEALAND
A number of political leaders and senior defence officials visited New Zealand during the year. Among these were: BrigadierJ.Essex-Clark, Commandant Australian Anny Command and Staff College.
Rear Admiral I. H. Richards, RAN,Chief of Joint Operations and Plans, Department of Defence (Central), Australia.
Their Royal Highnesses The Prince and Princess of Wales
Major General W. B.James, M.B.E.,M.C.,Director General Army Health Services, Australia.
General Donald R. Keith, Commanding General, US Army, Material Development and Readiness Command.
Hon G. G. D. Scholes, Minister for Defence, Australia.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Nevilie McNamara, KB.E.,AO.,A.F.C.,Chief of Defence Force Staff, Australia.
Brigadier J. E. Faulks, A.M., Director General Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, Australian Army.
Mr R. Cottrill, First Assistant Secretary, Strategic and International Policy, Department of Defence, Australia.
Major General A. D. Powell, Chief of Supply, Support Division, Department of Defence (Central), Australia.
Brigadier M. Ewing, C.B.E.,Director of the Army Legal Services, Australia. .
Vice Admiral Sir Roy Halliday, K.B.E.,D.S.C.,Director General of Intelligence, United Kingdom.
Major General Somsak Paonak, Assistant Director, Secretariat Department, Ministry of Defence, Thailand.
Air Vice Marshal P. J. Scully, Chief of Air Force Development, Royal Australian Air Force.
Major General Wiliam H. Schneider, Commanding General, US Army 25th Infantry Division, Hawaii.
Admiral S. R. Foley, USN,Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet.
Air Commodore G. W. Talbot, AF.C., AD.C., Royal Australian Air Force.
Mr Geoffrey Pattie, Minister of State Defence Procurement; and Mrs Pattie, United Kingdom. .
Rear Admiral J.J. Black, D.S.O.,M.B.E.,Flag Officer, First Flotilla; and Mrs Black, United Kingdom.
Brigadier Shamsuddin bin Hussain, Director, Army Medical Services, Malaysia.
Lieutenant General James M. Lee, Commanding General, United States Army West Command.
Major F. Tupou, Commander, Tonga Defence Services.
Major General Kenneth D. Burns, USAF Commander 13th Air Force, United States Air Force Base, Philippines.
General James P. Mullins, USAF Commander, Air Force Logistics Command, United States Air Force; and Mrs Mullins.
Major General Waymond C. Nutt, USAF, Commander, San Antonio Air Logistics Centre, United States of America.
Major General Jack W. Waters, USAF, Commander, International Logistics Centre, United States of America.
Major General Charles McCausland, USAF,Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics Operations, United States of America.
Vice Admiral Eugene A. Grinstead, USN, Director, Defence Logistic Agency.
Mr Lawrence J. Korb, United States Assistant Secretary of Defence (Manpower, Reserve Affairs and Logistics).
Mr J. A. Kelly, US Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defence for International Security Affairs (East Asia and Pacific Affairs).
General J. O’Malley, USAF,Commander in Chief Pacific Air Force.
Brigadier I. MacKay, M.B.E.,M.C.,Commandant, School of Infantry, United Kingdom. Major General R. Benbow, British Army Signals Officer in Chief
Admiral Prabhat Chandvirach, Commander in Chief, Royal Thai Navy.
Rear Admiral S. W. Riddell, Canadian Defence Forces Chief Maritime Doctrine and Operations.
Rt Hon Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, K.C.M.G.,Prime Minister of Fiji.
Tan Sri Dato Mohammad Yusof Bin Abdul Rahman, Secretary General of Malaysia and
Mrs Yusof General Hanrion, French Director of Intelligence.
A group from the National Defence College ‘of Thailand led by Major General Morakot Thanyasiri and a group from the United States National War College led by Ambassador Gordon R. Beyer visited New Zealand on Study Tours in April/May 1983 and March 1984 respectively.
Naval ships from United States of America, France, United Kingdom, Chile and Australia; and also submarines from Australia and United States of America visited New Zealand.
The Ministry acknowledges with appreciation hospitality provided by various clubs, associations, industry and private individuals to visiting personnel.