Extract from the report of the Naval Board of the Defence Council for period 1 April 1981 to 31 March 1982
In 1978 the Government published a Review of Defence Policy, setting out its thinking on New Zealand’s Defence requirements for the 1980’s. The Review took account of New Zealand’s limited economic resources, its problems as a trading nation and its strategic isolation in an uncertain world. It confirmed the central importance of the collective defence arrangements we have with our allies. Within this framework it was agreed that New Zealand needed modest well-equipped professional armed forces able to respond quickly to challenges within our region and to serve as the “core” for future expansion should the need arise.
Despite the economic constraints the Government has made satisfying progress towards implementing those provisions of the 1978 Review relating to re-equipment of the forces. 1980 saw the signing of a contract with Alvis Ltd. of Britain for the supply of 26 Scorpion light tanks or tracked fire support vehicles as they are more correctly called, the first of which will arrive in New Zealand later this year. During the current year contracts have been signed for the progressive delivery of the Army’s new range of general purpose vehicles. Three Boeing 727 aircraft have been delivered of which 2 are in service (1 is purely for use as spares); 3 Cessna 421C’s have replaced the obsolete Devon aircraft. The Government has also successfully negotiated an agreement with the British Government to purchase 2 frigates as replacements for HMNZ Ships Otago and Taranaki. This purchase will make good the Government commitment to the maintenance of an effective ‘blue water’ navy in the 1978 Review. Four vessels are being constructed in New Zealand for the Naval Volunteer Reserve. Surveillance equipment in the Orion maritime patrol aircraft is being extensively updated, with the lead aircraft fitted out in Seattle and the remaining 4 in New Zealand.
These measures will ensure that we continue to have effectively equipped armed forces in the 1980’s. There are some serious questions yet to be answered: most notably the roles and character of our maritime forces for the future and the development of the concepts of land/air warfare to suit our purposes. Moreover although a general philosophy of defence may be articulated, the circumstances in which we must make our dispositions are. not static.
In 1978 we said, “our world is a dangerous and unpredictable place and likely to become more so”. This, if anything, now seems like an understatement. The dangers have multiplied and with them the questions for the future. We have witnessed the U.S.S.R.’s growing ability to project its forces into the Pacific region. The Russians are now ensconced in Cam Ranh Bay and wage war in Afghanistan to consolidate an aggressive strategic gain there. Since 1978 there has been war between China and Vietnam and the latter country has brutally imposed itself on Kampuchea. The Gulf region and adjacent Horn of Africa, in effect the North Western Indian Ocean has become a zone not of peace but of conflict and instability. Heightening tension between the super powers, not least over the question of strategic arms and tactical nuclear weapons, is a cause for widely-felt anxiety; feelings about nuclear weapons now run particularly strong in many countries of the West.
Extremism, bordering on xenophobia, in some parts of the world can also only be viewed with disquiet. Religious fundamentalism in the Middle East has an influence on the economics and politics of other countries far afield. The vulnerability of our own trade routes, oil supplies, and communications to destabilising influences in the Gulf region is self evident. One can only ,speculate on the possible impact insurgency and revolution in some parts of Central and South America could have on our trade routes were they to spill over into the international arena. In April 1982 the unrestrained nationalism of Argentina boiled over into an act of aggression against the Falkland Islands which greatly concerned New Zealanders. We endorse the determination of Great Britain to show that such acts cannot be tolerated.
Unfortunately, recourse to the use of force is all too common in international life today. Violence, like international terrorism, knows no frontiers. New Zealand cannot shrug off such problems. Our small size and relative isolation offer no comfort in a dangerous world. Rather, such factors point the way we must go to provide for our defence. We cannot cope alone. But A the traditional line of thought that New Zealand’s only role is to contribute forces in pursuit of the interests we share with our larger partners is no longer sufficient as a defence doctrine. Certainly furtherance of our alliance interests must remain a large part of our aim. Increasingly, however, Defence policy requires New Zealanders to think like New Zealanders about the problems as they affect our region and our direct national interests. We must do this at a time when other areas of Government expenditure-the social sectors of the Vote-have higher priority with most New Zealanders than defence.
Some would have us wish these problems away or pretend that such harsh realities as nuclear power and nuclear weapons can be dealt with by passing resolutions or declaring unverified nuclear free zones. There seems a prevalent assumption that others will protect our interests without effort or commitment on our part. Or indeed that an alliance such as ANZUS can survive even if we take actions which cut across the basic security interests of our largest partner.
This is, of course, an illusion. The world will come crowding in on us whether we like it or not. It is a world in which others are facing the facts- accepting that there are risks but doing so in the knowledge that irresolution and lack of cohesion will undermine the whole system of deterrence by which peace between the superpowers has been preserved. This Government rejects the pretence that New Zealand can duck such issues. We have thus lent renewed emphasis to defence. We intend to continue to do so. But a democratic government also has the responsibility to foster debate so that the options may be seen as clearly as possible, despite their complexity.
Last year the Government provided for an increase in real terms of 9 percent in the Defence Vote and set aside funds to permit defence capital re-equipment programmes forecast in the 1978 Defence Review to proceed” progressively over the next decade. Nevertheless, it is clear that current rates of inflation, the adverse terms of trade and the pressing need to reduce Government expenditure, are seriously cutting into our efforts to maintain the operational effectiveness of the armed forces. Defence expenditure must allow for continuing high levels of training and exercising. Our aircraft, ships, and Army units must be maintained, fuel and ammunition must be expended in the process and stocks built up to prudent levels. Otherwise, we could have forces ill-trained and unable to carry out their prime operational roles. The conflict between these requirements and present budgetary constraints is obvious.
Against such considerations we must judge how we should develop our stance. We must start from the obvious point that the international scene is much less comfortable than could be foreseen in 1978. At the same time economic problems have become more difficult for New Zealand. The Government has thus directed that there should be a reappraisal of the roles and objectives of New Zealand’s armed forces having regard to the resources likely to be available. I have asked that this review be completed in time for its conclusions to be incorporated in the 1983-84 Estimates.
These issues will bear heavily on the future of New Zealand as a nation. Yet there is little in-depth and hard-headed study of them. Neither in Parliament, the academic world nor in the community at large is there-seemingly-serious or sustained interest. During the 1982 session in the Address-in-Reply debate I had cause to congratulate one back-bench MP for what I described as the best commentary on defence issues that I had heard in 20 years in the House. This was useful, but it is a poor reflection on what has gone before. We have also had, this same session, a useful debate on nuclear and disarmament issues which led to the establishment of a select committee to hear further from officials and authoritative spokesmen. This too is welcome as evidence of a growing wish to ponder such serious questions in depth.
The problems of peace and war have literally baffled mankind for all time. It would be well to recognise that the concern is well-nigh universal. The leaders of East and West alike are united perhaps on one thing only-the need to avoid nuclear war.
From this it can, I believe, be accepted as true that although the dangers are many and real, the edifice of deterrence has powerfully held the peace between 2 competitive and very potent superpowers for over 3 decades. It is in the interests of all that that structure should not be compromised.
Within that structure, however, there has been almost continuous conflict all around the world. War has by no means been banned by the bomb-only war between the superpowers. It is a danger in a country like New Zealand that the over-arching nuclear question might so dominate debate and focus anxiety as to cause the ever-present issue of conventional warfare and threat to be lost from sight.
This in turn has led too many people into a wrong-headed analysis of the ANZUS relationship. ANZUS is an alliance between 2 regional countries and a nuclear superpower. It does not, thereby, become a “nuclear alliance”. New Zealand has fore sworn the use, acquisition and storage on its territory of nuclear weapons. We are not and will never be a nuclear weapons state. Two of our major allies-the United States and Britain-are nuclear weapons states. But the weapons themselves are of such sensitivity and importance that their disposition and control must remain a matter fundamental to the sovereignty of the state which possesses them. Non nuclear weapons allies are not party to such matters. In the case of New Zealand at least, we have no wish to be. That is the onerous responsibility of our major partners.
This means that there is no such thing as a “nuclear umbrella” spread by ANZUS to cover each and every security preoccupation of New Zealand. ANZUS is founded on the principle expressed in Article 11that’ ‘the parties separately and jointly by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid will maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack”. It is conceivable-just-that a security threat to New Zealand could develop into an issue which could cause the 2 superpowers to threaten a nuclear confrontation. But it is necessary to reflect that perhaps only one of the many international crises of the last 30 years has in fact developed such a connotation-the cuban missile crisis of 1962 -to realise that such an eventuality is, to say the least, extremely unlikely.
Those who develop elaborate and far-fetched scenarios based on the supposed “risk” of having USN nuclear powered (and perhaps nuclear armed) warships in our harbours would do well to examine more responsibly the hard facts of global strategy, and the fact that visiting ships are nuclear powered is a separate argument. So far in millions of ship days of nuclear propulsion there has not been a single significant nuclear mishap. The warships which visit our ports mayor may not be nuclear armed. The Government accepts the logic of the United States position which is that to answer that question is to declare one’s hand to a potential assailant. The point is that if there are such weapons aboard they are not of a strategic character and therefore not a nuclear target. The seaborne component of the nuclear deterrent is deployed in ballistic missile carrying submarines. Such ships do not make friendly port calls for the very good reason that to do so would be to expose the whereabouts of an element of the deterrent. By the same token then the ships which do make friendly port calls are not part of the strategic deterrent. Therefore they do not bring with them the slightest risk of nuclear attack on the port which offers them hospitality.
I wish to see these issues discussed more widely. For that reason the Government promoted the establishment of a select committee to study them. I also intend in 1982 that the Ministry of Defence, as well as conducting a full review of defence policy, leading in due course to a White Paper on Defence, should embark on a programme to bring a wider understanding of defence questions to the community at large. It is time for debate.
INTERNATIONAL DEFENCE RELATIONSHIPS
The ANZUS Treaty relationship highlights the high degree of commonality of political and strategic interests of the 3 partners. It demonstrates a collective sense of purpose and as such gives an ultimate guarantee of security in the region. It is not a substitute for individual effort on defence; rather it provides the framework within which that effort can be made. New Zealand accordingly seeks to take an active part in ANZUS exercises, training activities, and unit exchanges. Details of these activities are referred to elsewhere in this report. During the year New Zealand also hosted the Thirtieth ANZUS Council meeting in June and participated in other ANZUS forums concerned with developing military capabilities and improving the 3 partners’ capability to operate together.
Defence Co-operation with Australia
The Australian and New Zealand Ministers of Defence met in Brisbane in March 1982, at the conclusion of the annual meeting of the Australia-New Zealand Consultative Committee on Defence Co-operation. In the communique issued at the conclusion of the meeting, the Ministers welcomed further progress in defence co-operation between the 2 countries, and noted that agreements are currently being concluded in several fields, for example, Defence Research and Development, and Maintenance of Defence Equipment. These agreements reflect continuing progress in developing bilateral defence links between Australia and New Zealand.
A practical demonstration of the close co-operation between the 2 countries was provided by the decision that Australia and New Zealand would jointly provide the helicopter element of the Aviation Support Group for the Sinai Multi-National Force and Observers (MFO). The helicopter element has already deployed to the Middle East, arriving in theatre on 20 March 1982.
Five Power Defence Arrangements
Following informal talks at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting at New Delhi in September 1980, it was decided to reactivate multinational exercises under the Five Power Defence Arrangements. Subsequently, an exercise programme was drawn up and financial guidelines were approved. As part of the exercise programme drawn up for 1981-82, New Zealand hosted a major combined land exercise SOUTHERN
SAFARI in March of this year at Lake Tekapo.
In September 1981 a second Exercise Scheduling Conference was held in Singapore, followed by a Joint Consultative Committee meeting in November. A continuing programme of maritime, land and air exercises was worked out for 1982-83. These will take place in Australia and Southeast Asia and will include air defence exercises under the auspices of the Integrated Air Defence System (lADS), to which the Five Powers contribute.
New Zealand Presence in Singapore
New Zealand Force South-east Asia, comprising an infantry battalion with supporting elements and an RNZAF Support Unit, remains in Singapore. During the year the New Zealand and Singaporean Governments mutually agreed to move the RNZAF Support Unit from Tengah airfield, where it has been based in the past, to Sembawang airfield closer to the rest of New Zealand Force. New Zealand also maintained participation in the Integrated Air Defence System (lADS) with 1 staff officer at the lADS Headquarters at Butterworth, Malaysia.
The continued presence in Singapore of New Zealand Force South-east Asia remains a matter of mutual agreement between the Governments of Singapore and New Zealand. It is seen by New Zealand as a tangible expression of our continuing interest in the stability and security of the region and a means of helping with military development. In this way New Zealand as well as Malaysian and Singaporean Armed Forces gain from opportunities for exercising and training together.
Mutual Assistance Programme
In 1973 the Government decided to place its defence assistance activities with ASEAN and South Pacific states within the framework of a Mutual Assistance Programme (MAP). As its title implies, the emphasis in this programme is on 2-way benefits. The broad objectives are to support New Zealand foreign policy by maintaining and strengthening bilateral relations in the defence field, and to make a contribution to the effectiveness and self-reliance of the armed forces of the countries participating in the programme. In return New Zealand seeks access to advantageous training facilities and deployment opportunities in those countries. The countries currently participating in the programme are Fiji, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Tonga. Assistance provided under the programme is confirmed in the main to the provision of training in New Zealand, the deployment of training teams overseas, and the secondment of a small number of New Zealand personnel for tours of duty of up to 2 years duration. During the past 12 months 322 personnel received training in New Zealand.
Defence Co-operation with Nations in the South-west Pacific
The Royal Fiji Military Forces (RFMF) provided the largest group of students to train in New Zealand during the year under the MAP. In the past 12 months 158 Fiji personnel attended courses or received on-the-job training in New Zealand. These courses covered a very wide range, including initial officer training, officer professional development, specialist skills subjects and administration. This training in New Zealand was complemented by the provision of substantial instructional assistance in Fiji. To assist the RFMF in training a second infantry battalion for overseas service in the Sinai with the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO), a number of training teams totalling 34 New Zealand Army officers and senior non commissioned officers were sent to Fiji in late 1981 for periods of up to 3 months. These training teams conducted courses which included initial officer training, platoon commander, section commander, warrant officer, driving, medical, signals, and administrative training. The RNZN again conducted diving training and provided assistance in Fiji to the Fiji Naval Squadron (FNS) with aspects of maintenance and stores control; training was also provided in New Zealand in such subjects as gunnery, seamanship, navigation, damage control, and communication. One officer, 2 warrant officers, and 1 senior NCO from the New Zealand Army are currently attached to the RFMF, 3 are engineers and 1 is a catering adviser and instructor. Members of the Defence Psychological Unit provided assistance at 2 RFMF officer selection boards in Fiji.
The Army and the RNZAF again utilised training areas in Fiji for tropical familiarisation training. Seven Army and 1 RNZAF exercises involved Regular and Territorial Force personnel and medical units, the latter providing medical assistance to villagers living close to the training area.
In June and July RNZAF Andover aircraft and Iroquois and Sioux helicopters deployed for the RNZAF’s tropical exercise. During their deployment flying effort was provided in support of the Fiji Government for reconstruction and rural development tasks. Orion aircraft exercised with FNS vessels and undertook 4 fisheries surveillance flights carrying Fiji Government officers. Iroquois helicopters were used to teach RFMF soldiers the techniques of winching and emplanement.
All 3 New Zealand armed services provided assistance to the Kingdom of Tonga following the devastation wrought by Hurricane Isaac in March. An RNZAF Orion maritime surveillance aircraft made an initial survey and photographic reconnaissance of all islands in the Kingdom. Hercules, Andover, and Iroquois aircraft were, as a result, able to depart at once for Tonga with relief supplies and to help with relief work at the points of greatest need. In total, 230 hours were flown by RNZAF aircraft. Army engineer, medical and air supply personnel assisted Tongan authorities in immediate relief tasks; HMNZS Taranaki carried emergency relief supplies to the Kingdom and provided fresh water and emergency electric power.
Thirty-four members of the Tonga Defence Services (TDS) travelled to New Zealand under the Mutual Assistance Programme for military courses with both the RNZN and the New Zealand Army. A warrant officer instructor of the Royal New Zealand Electrical and Mechanical Engineers was attached to the TDS for a 2-year tour of duty as instructor of the TDS trade school. A special course in international affairs was conducted in Tonga by an RNZAF officer. A RNZN armaments expert inspected the TDS ceremonial saluting battery and arrangements have been made to renovate it in Tonga.
Papua New Guinea
Members of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force undertook courses in New Zealand during the year, 22 completing parachute training; other courses included officer staff training and military police induction. Courses in cliff climbing and physical training instruction were conducted in Papua New Guinea by New Zealand Army teams under the MAP. Two New Zealand instructors continued their attachment to the PNGDF Defence Academy at Lae.
Defence Co-operation with the ASEAN States
New Zealand Force South-east Asia continues to co-operate with the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) through unit exercises and attendance at SAF training courses. Assistance was given by Force personnel to the SAF in the form of demonstrations and instruction in the use of battlefield simulation techniques. Skyhawk aircraft of No. 75 Squadron deployed to the area in April to take part in Five Power Integrated Air Defence System exercises with Australian, Singaporean, and Malaysian forces. An RNZAF navigation instructor is currently serving on a 2-year tour of duty with the RSAF and an RNZAF engineering officer completed a 2-year exchange in May. A 2-month exchange of parachute training instructors between the RNZAF’s Parachute Training Support Unit and the SAF School of Commando Training was also completed in May. Courses attended by the 9 SAF personnel who received training in New Zealand during the year included officer cadet training, army officer promotion and pilot training.
Throughout the year New Zealand Force South-east Asia continued to maintain a high level of co-operation with the Malaysia Armed Forces (MAF). In March a joint Malaysian/N ew Zealand Army exercise (T AIAHA TOMBAK IV) was held in Pahang State. 1 RNZIR and transport elements exercised under command of 8 Brigade Headquarters and with Malaysian infantry and support units. The exercise provided 1 RNZIR with an opportunity to practise various phases of conventional warfare in a combined arms setting. During the year RNZAF Support Unit Singapore provided support flying for units of the MAF at the Malaysian All Arms Tactics Training School at Pulada. Seventy-eight MAF personnel attended a variety of training courses in New Zealand, including army officer promotion, SAS, armour, advanced radio and signals. A Royal Malaysian Air Force officer completed a basic wings course. Under the exchange programme one RNZN seaman officer is serving with the Royal Malaysian Navy. An RMN hydro graphic officer completed a 2-year tour of duty with the RNZN in March and was replaced by another RMN hydro graphic officer. Two New Zealand Army officers are instructing at the Malaysian Army Jungle Warfare School at Pulada. For the first time a Malaysian Army Cavalry officer is on a 2-year tour of duty attached to the Royal New Zealand Armoured Corps.
In November a 20-man Malaysian Army Special Service contingent deployed to New Zealand to participate in Exercise GONFALON with NZSAS and special forces contingents from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
An Indonesian Air Force Officer attended the RNZAF’s Senior Command and Staff College. Indonesian Armed Forces personnel visited New Zealand to attend a seminar on air operations and to study the RNZAF’s Skyhawk maintenance programme. Officers from New Zealand Force South-east Asia provided assistance to the Indonesian Army on battlefield simulation training. HMNZS Waikato and HMNZS Canterbury made goodwill visits to Indonesia.
Training received by 9 Thai officers during the year included on-the-job training with the RNZAF and RNZN and attendance at army officer promotion courses. Students and directing staff of the Thai National Defence College visited New Zealand in May on a study tour.
In April 1981 RNZAF aircraft of No. 75 Squadron deployed to the Philippines to take part in Exercise COPE THUNDER with the United States and the Philippines Air Forces. A New Zealand SAS contingent, together with units from Australia, the United States, and the Philippines participated in SPECWAREX 82, a special warfare training exercise held in the Philippines in February 1982. Following this exercise the New Zealand unit exercised with Australian and Philippine units in Exercise HAWKEYE.
OPERATIONS, EXERCISES, AND TRAINING EXCHANGES
Sinai Multinational Force and Observers
New Zealand is among the contributors to the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) in Sinai, which was set up to verify compliance with the terms of the Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel. New Zealand is contributing 35 military personnel and 2 UH-1H Iroquois helicopters leased for the purpose from the United States Army.
Most of the New Zealanders (27 RNZAF and 2 New Zealand Army personnel) are serving jointly with the Australians in a Helicopter Section of the MFO Aviation Group based at El Gorah on a 6-month tour of duty. Two RNZAF and 4 Army officers are serving with the MFO Headquarters on a 12-month unaccompanied tour of duty. New Zealand’s initial commitment to the MFO is for 2 years. New Zealand is paying an amount equivalent to the cost of operating a similar helicopter unit in New Zealand, while the MFO is meeting all the remaining costs involved in keeping the unit in Sinai.
Major Exercises During the year RNZN frigates took part in a number of major maritime exercises involving units from the RAN and USN. HMNZ Ships Waikato, Otago) and Taranaki participated in LONGEX 81 off the East Coast of New Zealand’s North Island over the period 4-5 May 1981. The same ships, along with USN and RAN units, participated in Exercise BEACON SOUTH held in the Indian Ocean and the Great Australian Bight. This was followed by the joint exercise BEACON COMPASS 81, from 11-16 May 1981. HMNZ Ships Otago and Waikato also participated in STARFISH 81 a Five Power Defence Arrangement maritime exercise involving Australian, the United Kingdom, Singaporean, Malaysian and New Zealand forces. This took place in the South China Sea area during 23-26 June 1981. An RNZAF Orion aircraft also participated.
The major army exercise for the year, Exercise LOGEX 81 concentrated on the logistic aspects of supporting a division in a conventional, non-nuclear environment. The exercise, conducted at Papakura Camp during late November-early December, was based on the wargame used in Exercise TRIAD the previous year, and included a limited yet promising introduction to computer storage and retrieval of operational data. Financial constraints made it necessary to hold back somewhat on the scale of this exercise. During the training year 1981-82 the New Zealand Army nevertheless conducted a number of major exercises in which servicemen from overseas nations participated. The Army also contributed forces to various exercises run by other nations.
In August, Exercise PLATYPUS, a Five Power Defence Arrangement (FPDA) exercise, was conducted at the Shoalwater Bay training area in Queensland. It involved company-sized contingents from Australia, Malaysia, Singapore, United Kingdom, and New Zealand. The New Zealand contingent comprised soldiers from 2/1 RNZIR. This was the first of the new series of FPDA exercises. The Shoalwater Bay training area was also the venue during October-November for Exercise KANGAROO 81, the Army’s main contribution to the ANZUS schedule involving a total of 330 personnel from 2/1 RNZIR based in Burnham and 120 personnel from 1 RNZIR based in Singapore. Forces from both Australia and the United States took part. Air support was provided by No. 75 Squadron with 8 Skyhawks, 3 helicopters from No. 3 Squadron, 2 Andovers from No. 1 Squadron, and 2 Orion aircraft from No. 5 Squadron. The RNZAF also provided personnel to work in the various tactical headquarters in the field. An 8-man RNZN team joined diving units from the United States and Australian Navies for the duration of the exercise.
In March 1982 a major FPDA exercise, Exercise SOUTHERN SAFARI 82, was held in Tekapo involving contingents from Australia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong. Each nation provided an infantry company to supplement 2/1 RNZIR for the unit’s final exercise before replacement personnel were posted to 1 RNZIR in Singapore. Air support was provided by the RNZAF.
Exercise CAPTIVE LIGHTNING, an annual exercise involving United States Army personnel, took place in Waiouru in August 1981. A 550-man contingent from 1/14 Infantry Battalion of 25th Infantry Division, based in Hawaii, undertook cold weather training there prior to deploying later in the year to the Republic of Korea. In April 1981, 8 Skyhawks of No. 75 Squadron RNZAF participated in a Five Power Integrated Air Defence exercise in Malaysia with Australian, Singaporean, and Malaysian forces. Before arriving in Malaysia the Squadron took part in Exercise COPE THUNDER in the Philippines, alongside units from the Philippine Air Force and United States Pacific Air Force.
Other Exercises, Training Exchanges and Operations
Navy Following STARFISH 81 HMNZS Otago exercised with a USN task force before returning to New Zealand. During October and November HMNZS Canterbury deployed to Australia for work up. HMNZ Ships Canterbury, Waikato, Taranaki, and Monowai participated in SQUADEX 82 during the period 14-21 January 1982 in the Auckland area. HMNZ Ships Canterbury and Taranaki attended Exercise SEA EAGLE off the Australian coast with RAN and USN units during the period 22 February-5 March 1982. On completion of Exercise SEA EAGLE, HMNZS Canterbury deployed with the Australian Task force to Pearl Harbour to take part in Exercise RIMPAC 82. A world wide Naval Control of Shipping “paper exercise” was held from 16-26 March 1982.
The Army has continued with a series of individual and sub-unit exchanges designed to broaden military experience and promote wider co-operation with the larger armies of our allies. These include:
(a) Exercise LONG LOOK. Between August and December 1981, 31 New Zealand soldiers were attached to British Army units in Germany and the United Kingdom while 31 British soldiers served in New Zealand Army Units.
(b) Exercise ANZAC EXCHANGE. This is a continuing Defence exchange programme and during the year 13 soldiers served in Australian Army units for periods ranging from 1 to 4 months.
(c) Exercise PALEX. Between September and December 1981, 5 soldiers were attached to United States Army units on the United States mainland while the New Zealand Army hosted 6 United States Army personnel.
(d) Exercise PACIFIC PACK. This is an annual exercise involving a SO-man unit exchange between the New Zealand Army and an Hawaii-based United States Army unit. This year the exchange involved engineer units and provided participants with the opportunity for familiarisation with each other’s equipment and operational doctrine.
(e) Exercise TASMAN RESERVE. This is an annual company level exchange with Australia of Territorial Force and Citizens Military Force units. This year the exchange was conducted in February and involved soldiers from the South Island based 4th Battalion (Otago and Southland) RNZIR.
A number of overseas exercises have been held during the year by the Army. In March-April 1982, 1 RNZIR based in Singapore participated in Exercise TAIAHA TOMBAK IV in Malaysia. This exercise is an annual Malaysian Brigade-level exercise designed to practise conventional warfare skills in a tropical environment. Over recent years the United States Army based in Hawaii has conducted a series of command post exercises. Small groups of New Zealand Army officers have been invited to these exercises both as observers and to fill exercise staff appointments. This year a task force headquarters drawn from 3 Task Force Region participated.
In February 1982 a small contingent of New Zealand officers took part in Exercise TEAM SPIRIT based in Hawaii and Korea. The officers formed part of HQ 25 (US) Division and after initial preparation in Hawaii, deployed to the Republic of Korea to exercise with the Republic of Korea 3rd Corps. This exercise provided an opportunity for New Zealand officers to gain experience in working in a division headquarters while on a corps field training exercise in an unfamiliar environment.
During the year Exercise GONFALON was held in New Zealand. This is one of a series of special warfare exercises. Small groups from Australia, Malaysia, Britain, and the United States participated.
A team from 1 RNZIR Singapore has conducted wargaming training for the Indonesian Army. It introduced the wargame FIRST FORAY to the Indonesians and assisted them in adapting it to their own weapon systems and tactical doctrine. This training was well received and has been followed up by a request for similar training.
The TROPIC series of exercises was again conducted in Fiji and gave the Army the opportunity to train 400 men in a tropical environment. During their stay in Fiji each contingent carried out small-scale civil aid projects mainly in the field of medical hygiene.
During the year RNZAF Orion aircraft deployed regularly to Australia and Hawaii to practise anti-submarine warfare techniques with local forces. The series of reciprocal tactical training visits with the RAAF continued. RNZAF Skyhawks made 2 visits to Australia. In July 6 aircraft visited Townsville followed by a visit by 4 Skyhawks to Williamtown in March 1982. Eight RAAF Mirages visited RNZAF Base Ohakea in November 1981.
In September 1981 an Orion aircraft flew to Australia to participate in the annual anti-submarine warfare competition between the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. The Fincastle Trophy, won by New Zealand in 1980, was this year won by a Canadian crew.
ROUTINE OPERATIONS AND ACTIVITIES
International Aid and Other Support Activities in the South Pacific and South-east Asia
During the year the RNZN Hydrographer completed plans for a number of hydro graphic projects in the South Pacific region. The projects include a survey of sea mounts in Tonga, a survey of Apia Harbour and a joint survey with Fiji of the North-west coast of Vanua Levu. New Zealand army units which exercised in Fiji during the year provided small scale civic aid assistance. Ships of the RNZN made goodwill visits to Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. RNZAF aircraft carried materials for New Zealand government bilateral aid projects and provided search and rescue assistance and carried out surveillance in the South Pacific.
As mentioned in the section on defence co-operation with Tonga the New Zealand Armed Forces were extensively involved with provision of assistance following Hurricane Isaac in March 1982.
New Zealand Area
During the year the RNZN made a number of visits to outlying islands carrying research and other personnel from various Government departments and their stores. In June HMNZS Taranaki sailed for Raoul Island with stores but was diverted to the Chatham Islands with emergency diesel fuel. En route she searched for the missing yacht Camelot and uplifted the survivors from a Korean fishing vessel and returned them to New Zealand. The stores and Government personnel destined for Raoul Island were delivered in July after which Taranaki undertook an EEZ Patrol before returning to Auckland. During October HMNZS Taranaki was the escort for HMY Britannia throughout the New Zealand Royal Tour. Later in the year she carried out a Charter Parade in Nelson. HMNZS Waikato acted as Flagship at the Auckland Anniversary Regatta and was present in the Bay of Islands during the Waitangi Celebrations. Following introduction of a new policy in October 1981 diving manhours undertaken by the RNZN on behalf of other Government departments or local authorities fell to 834 for the year. This included the recovery of 3 bodies and 1 vehicle for the New Zealand Police. Four explosive ordnance disposal tasks were also undertaken during the year.
Provision of support to the Police Department during the Springbok tour made major demands on Defence. The Army gave substantial logistic support including transport, ground security, and catering. A team was also placed on standby to dispose of explosive devices should the need have arisen. Other Army assistance to the Police included catering support during the Sweetwater Festival and routine aid with search and rescue operations.
Army Engineers assisted the Police in both the planning and erection of wire obstacles during the Springbok rugby tour, and a number of tasks were undertaken on behalf of other Government departments and regional authorities. At the request of the Antarctic Division, DSIR, a team of engineer tradesmen deployed to Scott Base to carry out elements of a rebuilding programme. Up to 16 personnel were deployed and all tasks were completed without any signficant problems. The project gave an invaluable opportunity for an engineer team to deploy and work in a remote area under difficult conditions, using unfamiliar materials and techniques.
A team of personnel from 7 Field Squadron deployed to assist Civil Defence authorities in Thames during the floods in March 1981. Stop banks were reinforced, machinery trapped in the flood waters was recovered, and an aerial rope way was constructed to support a water pipeline. In September an officer and 23 soldiers from the School of Military Engineering, including Fijian and Tongan MAP students, constructed a 35m suspension bridge and 2 fixed span timber bridges in Westland for the Department of Lands and Survey. The task included the demolition of an existing railway bridge. At the same time another team from the School of Military Engineering deployed to Fiordland to complete 3 tasks for the Fiordland National Parks Board. A small hydro-electric plant was constructed at Deep Cove, comprising a dam, penstock, and turbine. A new chalet was built at the site of the Old Demon Trail Hut, and the hut was relocated.
It is becoming increasingly difficult for the Army to meet routine requests for assistance from other Government departments or civilian organisations. Army is fully committed to its primary military tasks and the large stocks of World War 11 surplus equipment once able to be used in support of other groups have now been used up.
The RNZAF flew a total of 1047 hours in support of the Police during the Springbok rugby tour. Training was also carried out with Police armed offenders and anti-terrorist squads. Armed offenders squads were provided with helicopter assistance as required. The RNZAF also assisted with the provision of flood relief to the township of Paeroa with a total of 27 flying hours by RNZAF helicopters being involved. In addition, fire fighters at Ashley gorge were supported by RNZAF helicopters in October 1981, and a number of demonstrations to various rural fire services were undertaken. As in previous years, personnel from Victoria University were helped in monitoring volcanic activity on White Island. The Acclimatisation Commission of Enquiry was provided with an RNZAF helicopter to inspect the proposed new boundaries in Waikato and North Auckland. Support was also provided for the Royal Tour in 1981 to a total of 120 flying hours.
Search and Rescue
The RNZAF flew 432 hours on search and rescue operations in New Zealand and as far afield as the Pacific Islands. Throughout the year a 2-hour standby capability was maintained with helicopters at Wigram and Auckland, and with fixed wing aircraft at Auckland and Ohakea. RNZN ships were involved in most of the search and rescue operations involving missing vessels such as the Came/ot. One involved the recovery of 2 would-be round-New Zealand rowers.
The Ministry of Defence carries out surveillance and policing of foreign fishing activities to the 200-mile limit of the Exclusive Economic Zone, as its contribution to the management of New Zealand fishing resources.
The Patrol Craft Squadron comprising HMNZS Pukakz~ Hawea, Taupo, and Rotoiti undertook these duties in the Territorial Sea. HMNZS Taranaki continued to combine her roles of resource protection and basic sea training while carrying out deep water patrols with the assistance of the RNZAF and HMNZ Ships Otago and Waikato. Other RNZN vessels reported on foreign fishing activities during the course of their normal duties. A total of 592 hours were flown by RNZAF Orion, Andover, and Friendship aircraft
in support of resource protection activities. One hundred and sixty-three courtesy and investigatory hoardings were carried out by the RNZN during the year.
As in previous years the United States National Science Foundation through the United States Department of Defence, requested New Zealand Defence support for operations in Antarctica during the period October 1981-February 1982. This assistance provided a major part of New Zealand’s contribution to joint United States -New Zealand logistic operations. A cargo handling team of 22 Army personnel deployed to Antarctica during the first week of October 1981. This team returned to New Zealand in early December and was replaced by a second team of similar size. One officer and a warrant officer were deployed for the complete summer season to give continuity in cargo handling command appointments. An additional team of 13 RF and TF Army personnel went to the Antarctic over January 1982 to help with the unloading of sea cargoes at McMurdo Sound. Operation Deep Freeze continues to provide realistic training in terminal operations for Army personnel. Between 17 November and 5 December 1981 the Air Force made 10 return trips to McMurdo Sound transporting 329 549 lbs of freight and 173 passengers in a total of 172 flying hours.
Hydrographic Survey HMNZS Monowai successfully completed the ANZCAN Pacific cable route survey late in March 1981. Monowai’s programme for late April-July was modified to allow her to complete tasks started prior to the ANZCAN survey before she commenced her first programmed refit after 4-years of continuous service. In all, 5 tasks were undertaken in the 9-week period:
(a) Siltation and sediment survey of the entrance to Gisbome Harbour (in co-operation with the Earth Sciences Division, Waikato University);
(b) accurate positioning of the Auckland and Campbell Island extremities as they affect the EEZ and to assist in discussions with Australia regarding median line delimitation between these islands and Macquarie Island;
(c) compilation of the Jackson Bay boat survey approaches to Milford Sound and accurate positioning of the newly established lighthouses at Windsor Point and Cape Providence. (The latter for charting purposes on behalf of the Ministry of Transport.)
(d) A positioningsurvey of Snares Island for the Department of Lands and Survey undertaken in conjunction with a sediment sampling programme of the Snares continental shelf for Waikato University. Support was also provided for a wildlife team from the Department of Lands and Survey which was on the island.
(e) Scientific sea trials in the company of HMNZS Tui.
As for last year Monowai continued with her “Extended Operation” system. By rotating leave for up to one-third of her company at anyone time the ship itself was able to continue its work over extended periods. A Wasp helicopter was embarked throughout May and June to assist with tasks in the sub-Antarctic Islands and Fiordland during early winter. That the work was finished on time was a measure of the value of the shipborne helicopter in the survey role.
The latter part of Monowai’s refit, which ended in December 1981, was taken up with post-refit trials and workup. During this period surveying personnel, boats, and equipment were detached to Whangarei Harbour where a re-survey of the lower harbour was undertaken at the request of the Northland Harbour Board as a prerequisite to the construction of a hydraulic model required as part of an investigation into a proposed timber port development in the area. Early in 1982 Monowai commenced a 4–month deployment to Foveaux Strait and Stew art Island.
The 2 inshore survey craft HMNZ Ships Tarapunga and Takapu deployed to Foveaux Strait at the beginning of 1981 to commence a large scale survey of the approaches to Bluff and Foveaux Strait. They remained in the survey area until July and then returned to Auckland to lie-up over winter. In September Tarapunga and Takapu returned to the South to undertake a small check survey of Lyttelton Harbour and then continue the survey of the approaches to Bluff. Following Christmas in Auckland the 2 inshore survey craft undertook a re-survey of the Manukau Harbour entrance bar and channels. In March 1982 both ships again moved south, this time to undertake a check survey of the approaches to Nelson Harbour following which they will again resume their survey of the approaches to Bluff. The surveys at Lyttelton, Nelson, and Manukau were all carried out in response to requests from the responsible Harbour boards made through the Hydrographic Policy Working Party.
As a result of the extension of the area of New Zealand charting responsibility, preliminary work has already been undertaken for a scheme of small scale charts covering the South-west Pacific Ocean. This has been done in conjunction with the British and Australian Hydrographic authorities. Preparatory work was also undertaken, at the request of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, on the Exclusive Economic Zone maritime boundaries between New Zealand and Australia. The oceanic data being obtained is proving invaluable for updating both New Zealand’s international and national series of charts as well as providing material for the production of a new international chart, New Zealand-Santa Cruz Island to Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) which is presently being compiled.
The policy of metricating New Zealand’s fathoms charts continues. A new metric chart covering the area from Port Taranaki to Farewell Spit, and a plan of Totaranui have been produced. A number of other metric charts are currently being compiled. The IALA Maritime Buoyance system is being progressively introduced to New Zealand waters from January 1982 and will be completed during the following 12 months. The change over to this new system will require numerous amendments to navigational charts and publications.
During the year a total of 5 new charts, 1 new edition, and 48 reprints or revisions were published. Sales to the shipping industry and the public, together with service issues totalling 52 006 charts (all fully corrected and up-to-date) and 6560 navigational books. Twenty-five thousand copies of the weekly notices to Mariners and 600 copies of the Annual Summary were published and 219 long-range Navigational Warnings were issued for the South Pacific area.
Recruitment and Retention
This year saw a further decrease in the rate of release in all 3 services, continuing a trend which has now been evident for several years. Some recruiting quotas have had to be reduced over the year to remain within authorised manpower ceilings in the first instance, and then because of financial constraints. Notwithstanding this general trend, it is still essential actively to recruit suitable people as officer cadets and specialist technical trainees. The past shortage of experienced personnel with advanced qualifications is progressively being reduced; nevertheless the situation is not being retrieved at the same rate as the overall improvement in retention.
Conditions of Service
Improved conditions of service over the last 5 years have assisted in achieving the better retention rates being experienced at present. This year has seen a number of measures designed to fine-tune the system rather than more major innovative projects.
A broad range of Defence personnel continue to undertake voluntary educational study over a wide spectrum of academic and technological disciplines at a tertiary level. Education remains a key integral feature of Defence activities in support of general trade, technical, and professional training.
The Services continue to encourage participation in sport, in both recreational and competitive environments. Inter-unit and inter-service tournaments were held in all major sports and Combined Services teams again competed in national tournaments.
Psychological advice, assistance, and research to the Armed Forces continues to be provided by the Defence Psychology Unit, with particular emphasis on selection and training. Over the year assistance was provided to the Ministry of Transport, 2 university projects and to the Royal Fijian Military Forces officer selection boards.
Defence Chaplains are a pillar of Service care and welfare arrangements making provision for religious services, worship, sacraments, and moral education, and also through a wide range of pastoral care activities.
The medical and dental services continue to provide a high standard of care. A survey of dental health in the Armed Forces was carried out during 1981 and showed a marked reduction in the number of filled teeth in younger servicemen. This is thought to be due to the cumulative effect of fluoridation of community water supplies and widespread use of fluoridated toothpaste.
The Army Garrison Institute continues to provide a worthwhile and necessary service for soldiers and their dependants. To assist the flow of information between local commanders, management and customers, local consultative committees with representation from all ranks and service families have been established and are operating successfully. The grocery supermarket at Waiouru is now a member of the chain of Foodmaster stores. This provides more efficient service, with competitive prices. The Army Garrison Institute profits for the year continued to be the major contributor to Army Central Welfare funds, providing funds for welfare projects throughout the Army. These included improvements to the community Marae at Waiouru, assistance with the construction of a swimming pool at Ngaruawahia Camp, erection of a sports changing room and training complex at Linton Camp, and provision of soil for fairways on the Trentham Camp Golf Course.
The Army Group Insurance Plan is now consolidated with 1868 soldier members and 1078 spouse members.
During the past year 224 personnel commenced training overseas on courses of varying lengths, mainly in Australia, the United Kingdom, and ,the United States. As in the past, emphasis was on initial officer, postgraduate, technical, and application training, with staff college courses being offered to selected senior personnel. Specialist servicemen also undertook training overseas in order to assess changes in operational doctrine and technology thereby helping to maintain a basic level of expertise in various professional military fields. The cost of training however continued to rise and every care has had to be taken to ensure that training conducted overseas is essential and cannot be undertaken here in New Zealand. Measures are currently being examined by Defence with the aim of reducing, or at least holding, these costs. The number of personnel serving on overseas exchanges remained at 17. The aim of these exchanges is to keep alive particular operational skills, to train officers for specific posts on their return to New Zealand, and to broaden the military experience of selected personnel.
During the year a total of 2650 male and female regular personnel received training on courses varying in length from half a day to 1 year. This included 277 new entry trainees, 2318 basic branch trainees/advanced or refresher trainees, and 55 officers, of whom 7 graduated from University under the degree scheme. As in previous years training assistance was continued to the navies of a number of countries belonging to the Mutual Assistance Programme. In all, 45 Fijian, 24 Malaysian, 1 Thai, and 2 Papua New Guinea personnel undertook courses. In addition, a total of 154 RNZNVR and 64 Sea Cadet personnel were given training at HMNZS Tamaki during the Christmas and school holiday periods. This was less than last year because of a reduction in accommodation at Tamaki due to the renovation of ‘A’ Block. Thirty-eight personnel from the other armed services, 267 from HMNZ Dockyard, 142 from other Government departments and 63 from the Merchant Navy were also trained by the RNZN during the year. Eighteen officers and ratings, including RNZNVR and Sea Cadet instructors, were given tuition in analysis and design for the systems approach to training. A great deal of valuable information was also gained in this field from visits to and from the Royal Australian Navy under the ANZAC Exchange Agreement with Australia.
Twenty-nine officers were commissioned into the New Zealand Army in the 12 months to 31 March 1982 including 1 graduate from the Royal Military College Duntroon, 15 from the Officer Cadet School Portsea (both being Australian establishments), and 13 from the Officer Cadet Training Company at Waiouru. Four thousand and fifty-two Regular and 518 Territorial Force Army personnel received individual training on a total of 670 courses conducted by Army schools and depots. In addition, 235 Regular Force soldiers and 1284 Territorial soldiers qualified on recruit training courses conducted at Waiouru and Burnham. The Army also accepted 171 personnel from the Navy, Air Force, and Police on courses. This year saw a total of 214 soldiers from ASEAN and South Pacific nations trained in Army establishments under the Mutual Assistance Programme.
During the year 10 officers graduated from aircraft courses. Fourteen officers graduated as flying instructors while 3 navigators and 2 air electronic operators completed advanced training. Forty-two officers finished junior staff training, including officers from Thailand, Papua New Guinea, and Malaysia who were training in New Zealand under the auspices of the Mutual Assistance Programme. Twenty personnel, including officers from the RNZN, New Zealand Army, RNZAF, the Public Service and a number of MAP countries graduated from the RNZAF Staff College this year. Twenty newly commissioned officers and officer cadets graduated from the Officer Training School, while 16 University Cadets completed degrees or qualified for further training. The RNZAF conducted 154 ground training courses from which 1515 personnel successfully completed training. Use was also made of RNZAF facilities to provide training assistance to the Ministry of Transport, New Zealand Police, aviation clubs, St Johns Ambulance, Air Scouts, and the news media. This year assistance centred around general aviation medicine training.
Non-Regular Forces Strengths.
A total of 53 RNZNVR officers and 181 ratings completed whole time service in RNZN ships and training schools during the year. Five officers served in inshore survey craft and 18 ratings filled complement billets in patrol craft for varying periods. In addition, 45 Naval Control of Shipping courses were concurrently held. During the year each division manned 72 foot RNZNVR motor launches for the Royal visit by Her Majesty The Queen and for major yacht race escort duties. Assistance was also provided to other services, local afloat training was undertaken, and passage to and from refits in company with patrol craft.
This year showed improved recruiting and retention rates with the strength of the RNZNVR at 25 November 1981 being 468. Development by RNZNVR Divisions of training courses has progressed slowly and there are still a number requiring completion. Divisions have, however, made some improvements in training aids and facilities at their Headquarters, and all have now been issued with an additional 17-foot sailing craft constructed in HMNZ Dockyard. Government approval for the acquisition of 4 craft, similar to the inshore survey craft, as replacements for the aged motor launches has been well received by the RNZNVR.
The Territorial Force strength at 31 March 1982 was 6289. One thousand one hundred and forty-seven volunteers completed 12 weeks basic training, an increase of 105 over the previous year. During the year Territorial Force personnel took part in exercises in Australia, Fiji, Malaysia, and Hawaii and arrangements have now been concluded for a limited number of Territorial Force personnel to train with American Reserve Forces.
Although recruiting has remained at a similar level to past years, retention has improved with the total strength of the Territorial Force rising above 6300 during the year. This is the first time this level has been reached for several years.
As in previous years the Territorial Air Force continued to provide for Air Traffic Control appointments and to man the RNZAF’s band. Approval in principle was given last year to progressively raising the strengths of the Territorial Air Force and to establishing non-regular force squadrons on each major RNZAF base; unfortunately current financial restraints have not permitted these measures to be implemented as yet. The squadrons will however be established as finance becomes available.
The Cadet Forces continued over the year to provide a challenging and effective programme for the development of good citizenship in the Nation’s youth. Good levels of support were given by the community to existing units, and this year has seen a growing demand for the establishment of new units throughout the country. During 1981, new Air Training Corps units were established in Howick Papakura, Rotorua, and Dunedin. Schools at Mangakino and Opotiki joined the School Cadet Corps, and a further 6 schools have expressed interest in joining the scheme. The Sea Cadet Corps is in the process of establishing a new unit in the Auckland area.
The numbers of permanent and temporary civilian staff and casual wage workers employed at 31 March 1982 totalled 3315 as detailed in table 1. During the year, 47 overseas tradesmen recruited in the United Kingdom commenced employment in HMNZ Dockyard. The second overseas recruiting drive was ceased on the cancellation of the conversion of HMNZS Taranaki.
DEFENCE MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
Electronic Data Processing
A Sperry Univac 1100/62E Computer, authorised by Cabinet in January 1981, was installed at the Defence Electronic Data Processing Unit Porirua in mid-February 1981, and having undergone testing was accepted by Defence in late March 1981. After initial training of the electronic data processing personnel, conversion of the current Defence data processing systems commenced in June 1981. Systems have been progressively switched to the new computer and the final changeover occurred on 18 April 1982. A major advance in the configuration of the new facility is the addition of a national data communications network providing terminal access to the computer. It is expected that the first 40 terminals will be connected by 1 May 1982.
Progress on the secure annexe to the Freyberg Building has been deferred and the emphasis transferred to relocation and refurbishment of floors within the Stout Street Building. Government has agreed in principle to this scheme and preliminary planning is proceeding on the basis that one of the refurbished floors will be available to Defence in late 1982 or early 1983.
The Dental Unit’s accommodation in Bunny Street has been completed and is now in use. Work has commenced on the fitting out of the 14th floor and the remainder of the 13th floor in the Freyberg Building as office accommodation and this will be ready for occupation this year.
Capital Works and Maintenance In the main the Armed Forces continue to occupy accommodation built prior to, or during, World War n. While considerable progress has been made in upgrading accommodation standards, much remains to be done. Current programmes are aimed to improve catering and dining’ facilities whereas in the past the emphasis has been on better living accommodation. A wide range of operational, industrial, and training accommodation and facilities are still in need of upgrading or renewal. Defence needs facilities adequate to the role they are required to fill, which meet both mandatory and community standards. Housing development has slowed down over the year pending resolution of an overall Defence Housing Policy. The Government’s policy of limiting construction! acquisition of housing in urban areas has also affected Defence. In 1980 an interdepartmental review of the system of maintaining Defence establishments concluded that levels of allocations for this purpose were inadequate to meet Defence requirements, and that there was a need for further detailed surveys of the state of Defence facilities. The review stated that any such surveys could be expected to disclose significant backlogs of work which could not be funded from within existing allocation levels. Unfortunately, to date Defence has been unable to carry out these surveys or to make available additional funds for maintenance. During the year alterations to the boat shop at HMNZ Dockyard, installation of shelving in the warehouses at the Naval Supply depot, and the refurbishment of accommodation for officers under training at HMNZS Tamak! were completed. A number of projects were also completed over the year for the Army. Increased fuel storage facilities were provided at Whangarei, Papakura, Trentham, Burnham, Tekapo, and Dunedin; an improved armoury was built at Papakura as was an Army Centre at Tauranga, a new Senior NCOs’ Mess at Burnham, Officer/SNCO accommodation at Addington, and all ranks accommodation at Dunedin. Works completed for the RNZAF included the refurbishment of barrack accommodation at Hobsonville, Whenuapai, and Te Rapa, the second new stage of the Airman’s Club and a new air traffic services building at Ohakea; a new boiler house, heating in No. 5 hangar, and a trade waste disposal system at Woodbourne. There are a number of projects which are well advanced or nearing completion. These include: side transfer facilities for small craft at HMNZ Dockyard and a new gymnasium block. Renovations of barrack accommodation were undertaken at HMNZS Tamaki, the Arch Hill Army Centre at Auckland and Junior Ranks barracks and Senior NCOs’ Mess and quarters at Waiouru. In addition extensions are nearing completion of the medium temperature heating system at Waiouru and the Junior Ranks Mess at Trentham.
During the year contracts were let for the school ablutions at HMNZS Tamaki, for the building of a Command Ration Store and Ngataringa Bay Sports Centre at HMNZS Philomel, and the construction of a new Officers’ Mess and quarters and fuel storage facilities at Waiouru. Tenders have also been called for improvements to the Officers’ Mess at RNZAF Shelly Bay and are being considered for the new wharf at HMNZ Dockyard.
Accommodation in a number of minor locations is in the process of being renovated and modernised. Three houses were completed at Linton during the year. Construction of a further 4 houses at various locations is proceeding.
Fourteen houses were purchased during the year; 6 at Ardmore (ex Ministry of Transport), 6 at Waiouru, and 2 at Ngaruawahia. The upgrading of 2 blocks of duplex housing units at HMNZS Philomel and houses classified as being of inferior specification at Waiouru is continuing.
Equipment and Supply Support The past year has seen an increase in the level of capital equipment purchasing activity within the Ministry of Defence. Following the United Kingdom Government’s decision to reduce the size of the Royal Navy surface fleet, the Government negotiated the purchase of HM Ships Bacchante and Dido as suitable vessels to replace HMNZ Ships Otago and Taranaki. The net total project cost, allowing for the money saved by the cancellation of the Taranaki life extension conversion, will be in the vicinity of $97.8 million. These ships, which have been acquired on very favourable terms compared , with the cost of a new ship, are expected to enter into service with the RNZN in late 1982 and mid 1983 respectively. As at 31 March 1982 it is expected that Bacchante will undergo an extensive refit in HMNZ Dockyard in 1983-84 while Dido will receive a short refit in the United Kingdom before steaming to New Zealand. Arrangements have been concluded for 4-Naval Volunteer Reserve Training Vessels to be built by the Whangarei Engineering Company.
Three Wasp helicopters are being purchased for the RNZAF while 2 additional aircraft types, the Boeing 727 and Cessna 4-21C, were introduced during the year as the Devon aircraft were phased out. Maintenance arrangements for the Boeings with Air New Zealand are in the process of being concluded and both aircraft in service have had initial modifications undertaken, with the remaining modifications to be completed in the latter half of 1982. An avionics modification programme for the Cessna aircraft has been commenced and will be completed in 1982. The programme “to change the outer wings on the C130 Hercules aircraft has now been completed and the last aircraft to be modified by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation returned to New Zealand in October 1981. Routine examination of individual Skyhawk A4-/TA4-K aircraft showed that cracking of the aircraft primary structure is occurring more rapidly than experienced by other Skyhawk operators. A structural study to determine the cause is under way. T53-L13B engines have been installed in all UH-1D lroquois helicopters bringing about standardisation throughout the Iroquois fleet. This will reduce costs for spares and engine overhauls, as well as standardising aircraft operation. The development of long term aircraft structural management plans are progressing and work on aircraft avionic refits aimed at standardising avionic installations and upgrading the aircraft capability and performance continued during the year with equipments being changed on the Andover, Orion, and Hercules aircraft. The Precision Approach Radar at RNZAF Bases Ohakea and Auckland is currently being replaced by new units supplied by ITT Gilfillan of the United States of America. The new units will provide a more accurate and reliable service and will greatly reduce the effort required for maintenance. Several non-directional navigational beacons and rebroadcast stations are being replaced around New Zealand by the RNZAF working with the Ministry of Transport. Studies aimed at ensuring that ground support equipment and workshop equipment meet the requirements of RNZAF have commenced. These studies will be used to decide on the most efficient use of finance for new and replacement equipment.
The New Zealand Anny has made significant progress during the year towards redressing some of the deficiencies in major equipment and war material. All major elements of the new armoured systems have now been ordered and subject to the Scorpion tracked fire suport vehicles passing stringent quality assurance tests, first deliveries will commence in May 1982 and be completed in June 1983.
Another major advance this year has been the selection of the Army’s new range of general service vehicles. The final selection was made after a rigorous and disciplined evaluation of some 34 different options which were tendered in response to a comprehensive requirement specification. Contracts have now been signed with the New Zealand Motor Corporation for the supply and delivery of 568 x 0.75 tonne Landrover V8 vehicles and with the Cable Price Corporation for the supply and delivery of 210 x 1.5 tonne Unimog U1330L, 412 x 4.0 tonne Unimog UL1700L, and 228 x 8.0 tonne Mercedes Benz 2228/41 vehicles. A variety of ancillary systems and specialist support vehicles are included within the programme, tenders for which will be let progressively during the 8-year span of the project. It is particularly pleasing that the vehicles will be assembled in New Zealand enhancing the support capability of the industry as a whole.
Further the Army is continuing to define its requirements for replacement equipment to maintain essential capabilities. The continued deterioration of ageing equipment makes this urgent. It is recognised that replacement of small arms, communications, artillery, and anti-armour systems will be needed in the near to mid term.
The conversion of vehicles to CNG is progressing in accordance with Government policy. A total of 381 declarations of obsolete and unserviceable stores and equipment were made to the Government Stores Board during the year. These included 2 motor launches which were sold for $11,100, Army engineering machinery sold for $58,091, and 2 dockyard plate rollers sold for.$2580. Ninety-eight vehicles were disposed of as being beyond economic repair.
The introduction of new style clothing continued, although hindered by the non-delivery of woollen materials and also financial constraints. Rationalisation has achieved some minor savings. Financial restraints have restricted the purchase of ammunition along with other equipment during the year. Ammunition price increases place a heavy burden on Defence purchasing and could bear directly on the efficiency of the Armed Services. With present budgetary constraints it can be expected that there will be further delays in purchases of other basic items of support equipment. The Defence Cataloguing Authority (DCA) has for some years been allocating NATO stock numbers to the 350 000 items on the Defence inventory. Eighty-three percent of the depot stock items have now been codified. In addition, a start has been made on codifying locally procured items held at base level, while codification of new capital equipment will continue. DCA resources will thus be fully stretched and it is hoped that significant savings will ensue.
During the year Fleet Maintenance Unit (FMU) personnel supported 12 Assisted Maintenance Periods (AMPs). Of particular interest were concurrent AMPs for 2 frigates in Singapore for which 28 technical personnel plus equipment were sent to Singapore for up to 3 weeks. This first overseas deployment by FMU was a success which showed that the RNZN can maintain an operational presence abroad supported by its own maintenance personnel. Technical support continued to be given, both in Auckland and at various New Zealand ports to RNZN patrol craft, RNZN inshore survey craft and diving tender, RNZNVR boats, Tamaki motorised and ‘sailing craft, Sea Cadet Unit Craft, and Police Department launches.
During the year the Fleet Trials and Analysis Unit (FTAU) continued its task of analysing all surface weapons (gunnery and guided missile) practices conducted by RNZN frigates. FTAU operated the Whangaparaoa direction finding and degaussing ranges and assumed partial responsibility for the conduct of noise ranging at the Great Barrier island site. Investigations into the removal and resiting of the Whangaparoa degaussing range continue in conjunction with the Ministry of Works and Development. In October-November 1981 the Trials Officer (WE) was attached to the Royal Australian Navy Trials Analysis Unit as part of the ANZAC Exchange Programme.
The Ship Maintenance Co-ordinating Authority (SMCA) undertook a number of projects over the year. These included: a complete item by item check, update, and rewrite of all ship equipment lists; production of new data pack systems for HMNZ Ships Canterbury, Waikato, Takapu, Tarapunga, and Manawanui; production of new format planning books for HMNZ Ships Monowai and Otago.
HMNZ Dockyard continued its primary task of providing maintenance support to the Fleet, giving assistance to operational ships of the RNZN and visiting naval forces, and undertaking the manufacture and repair of naval store items. A limited amount of assistance has been provided to craft from other Government departments. With the impending purchase from the United Kingdom of the replacement frigates the life extenison conversion for HMNZS Taranaki was cancelled. An extended refit of HMNZS Canterbury was completed in July 1981 and was followed by the first refit of HMNZS Monowai between July and November. A refit of HMNZS Otago is now in hand, and is scheduled for completion in June 1982. Docking and essential defect maintenance periods were provided for HMNZS Tui and HMNZS Taranaki, while an unscheduled docking for HMNZS Canterburywas needed for a propeller change. One patrol craft and 1 tug refit were completed during the year, in addition to several dockings for routine maintenance and inspections. Maintenance and some operational defect support was provided for other small craft, including launches operated by the Police Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, and the Ministry of Transport. The Fleet Support Group, under the command of the Captain Fleet Support has now been in operation for 2 years. Its role expands to HMNZS Philomel, Philomel boats and the Naval Supply Depot situated in Devonport, the Naval Air Support Unit at Hobsonville and the Armament Supply Depot at Birkenhead plus subdepot at Whangaparaoa Peninsular.
On 4 April, a Royal Guard, provided by HMNZ Ships Canterbury,Tamaki, and Philomel was paraded on the occasion of the visit to the Naval Base by His Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales.
HMNZS lrirangi continued to maintain radio services to Australia, Honolulu, and Vancouver, and communications links with naval ships at sea while assisting with search and rescue communications. HMNZS lrirangi personnel played an important role in the rescue of passengers following the Silver Fern derailment on 18 August 1981. Two junior ratings, members of HMNZS lrirangi’s Volunteer Fire Brigade received commendations for their part in the rescue.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
The metallurgy section at the Defence Scientific Establishment (DSE) has devoted a substantial
effort to providing a day-to-day scientific service in trouble-shooting and quality assurance tasks concerning metal and oil products used by the 3 services.
Propulsion and structural elements of RNZAF aircraft have required a significant level of metallurgical support. There have been indications that the New Zealand operating environment may have an adverse effect on military aircraft fatigue life. In the field of engine health monitoring, a collection of case histories has been analysed so that engine malfunctions can be diagnosed by computer processing before expensive failures result.
In the field of underwater acoustics, DSE has obtained new data relating to the effect of the New Zealand environment on the performance of detection systems. A survey of underwater noise was carried out around the North Island with HMNZS Tui, using a new multi-element array of hydrophones developed at DSE. This trial made the first measurements in our area with a vertical array and will provide data required to evaluate the performance of modern aircraft sonobuoys and ship-deployed passive sonar systems. A program of analysis was started, using data from this trial and from a previous experiment (Project AKARANA).
In many areas, sonar performance is limited by the properties of the sea floor. Therefore, during the same trial, a preliminary measurement was made of the acoustic; properties of the sea floor in the Hikurangi trench. This work was done jointly with the Geophysics Division of DSIR, using both the Tui and the RV Tangaroa. In addition, further data have been gathered on the factors affecting the performance of towed array sonar systems in the New Zealand area.
An experimental model of the airborne acoustic processor for the RNZAF underwent successful flight trials, and the analysis of the trials results was completed by mid 1981. Studies of a possible production version were continued. A prototype of the automatic test equipment for army radios was completed, for field trials in the second quarter of 1982. The analytical studies section completed studies on project management in equipment acquisition, and on the support of operational computers. In all sections ofDSE, work has continued on the provision of scientific assistance to the services in their operations.
Fruitful co-operation with the United States in defence science has continued, in joint projects and exchanges of results, particularly in underwater acoustics. A Memorandum of Understanding with the United States was signed, providing for work in engine health monitoring. A Memorandum of Understanding on Co-operation in Defence Science between New Zealand and Australia was signed. This builds on past cooperative work and provides an umbrella under which the available defence science facilities can be used to the best advantage to meet the needs of the two countries. Continued participation in The Technical Co-operation Program (TTCP), with Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, has provided the basis for these co-operative activities which greatly enhance the effectiveness of the DSE program.
THE DEFENCE COUNCIL
The Defence council as at 31 March comprised:
The Rt Hon. D. S. Thomson, M.C., E.D., Minister of Defence.
Vice Admiral N. D. Anderson, C.B., C.B.E., Chief of Defence Staff.
Mr D. B. G. McLean, M.Sc., M.A. (Oxon), Secretary of Defence.
Air Vice Marshal D. E. Jamieson, CB., a.B.E., Chief of Air Staff.
Rear Admiral K. M. Saull, C.B., Chief of Naval Staff.
Major General R. G. Williams, M.B.E., Chief of General Staff.
The Secretary to the Treasury and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs are Associate members of the Defence Council.
VISITORS TO NEW ZEALAND
A number of political leaders and senior defence officials visited New Zealand during the year. Among these were:
His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales
Air Vice Marshal M. G. Beavis, C.B.E., A.F.C., F.B.I.M., Commandant Royal Air Force Staff College.
Major General P. F. A. Sibbald, a.B.E., Director of Infantry British Army.
Mr W. R. Green, Associate Assistant Deputy Minister for Personnel, Department of National Defence, Canada.
Mr D. W. Digby, Director General of Compensation and Benefits, Department of National Defence, Canada.
Admiral D. C. Davis, USN, Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet, United States of America.
Colonel R. Lavoie, USAF, Chief of Avionics, United States of America.
Admiral Sir Anthony Synnot, K.B.E., A.O., RAN., Chief of Defence Force Staff, Australia.
Admiral R. L. J. Long, USN, Commander in Chief, Pacific Command, United States of America.
Colonel Moeljono, Director of Training Policy, Indonesian Air Force.
Group Captain W. Collins, Director Mechanical Policy, Royal Australian Air Force.
Her Majesty The Queen and His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh.
Brigadier General G. Mamae, O.B.E., Commander of Papua New Guinea Defence Forces.
Lieutenant General A. W. Braswell, USAF, Commander in Chief, Pacific Air Force, United States of America.
Lieutenant General E. P. Forrester, US Army, Commander Western Command, United States Army Bases in Hawaii, United States of America.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Michael Beetham, G.C.B., C.B.E., D.F.C., A.F.C., A.D.C., Chief of Air Staff, Royal Air Force.
Admiral Sir Henry Leach, G.C.B., A.D.C., Chief of Naval Staff and First Sea Lord, United Kingdom.
Vice Admiral M. S. Holcomb, USN, Commander Seventh Fleet, United States of America.
The Honourable Abang Abu Bakar, Bin Datu Bandar Abang Haji Mustapha, Deputy Minister of Defence, Malaysia.
Dr L. J. Korb, United States Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower Reserve Affairs and Logistics) United States of America.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Terence Lewin, G.C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O., Chief of Defence Staff, United Kingdom. Major General. F. Chapple, C.B.E., Commander British Forces Hong Kong.
Brigadier Tan Chin Tong, Acting Chief of General Staff, Republic of Singapore.
A group from the National Defence College of Thailand and the Pakistan Naval Staff College visited New Zealand on study tours. Naval ships from Australia, Singapore, Korea, Japan, France, United States, and the United Kingdom visited New Zealand during the year. The Ministry acknowledges with appreciation the hospitality provided by various clubs, associations, industry, and private individuals to visiting personnel.