Extract from the report of the Naval Board of the Defence Council for period 1 April 1980 to 31 March 1981
New Zealand is geographically the most isolated developed country on earth. Yet our level of development, our standard of living and our pattern of life depend on the trading and other links we maintain with the rest of the world. New Zealand may be far removed from present areas of conflict, but distance confers no protection these days. Moreover, our interests can be put at risk in almost any part of the world, so dependent are we on external trade and secure communications. Isolation, a small population, and limited industrial strength, create difficult defence and foreign policy problems for New Zealand.
Ours is now a very interdependent and dangerous world: there are deadly risks from nuclear weapons; and the economic disaster that would result from the disruption to international oil supplies is obvious and demonstrates the interlocking character of major issues. Soviet adventures in Africa, South-west and South-east Asia, widespread instability and tension, and the profound human tragedies created by maldistribution of resources are global problems to which New Zealand cannot be indifferent.
In these circumstances there is no security in isolation. Shifts in the balance of forces in the Pacific Basin, the overthrow of friendly Governments in the region, pressures on trade or trade routes, could all threaten New Zealand interests. New Zealand may be blessed by nature, and a place apart, but the assumption that things will always stay as they are has proved to be one of the most common and most disastrous errors of history. By history, family ties, and political and economic instincts, New Zealand is indisputably a “Western” country. We are also closely linked with like-minded countries in our own broad region. We thus have widely shared interests in helping resolve international problems. This is the foundation for our defence policy and it will not alter.
In the short span since the last New Zealand Defence Review was completed in 1978 the unpredictability of the international scene has been amply demonstrated. The latest conflict in the Gulf involving war between Iraq and Iran follows hard on the heels of the establishment of a revolutionary regime in Tehran and a large-scale Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and these events have substantially altered a whole range of strategic assumptions. While our own dependence on oil from this troubled part of the world has been highlighted, we have at the same time been able to develop very important trading opportunities in the same region. In South-east Asia also, the Soviet Union has made a major strategic advance and its air and naval forces now make regular use of facilities at Cam Ranh Bay and Da Nang in Vietnam. Kampuchea has been invaded by Vietnam, and tensions between China and Vietnam remain high since a brief period of open warfare about 2 years ago. In the face of these developments ASEAN countries have shown great economic vitality as well as new political cohesion; major increases in military strength are being put in place, as the region adjusts to the new situation. For its part New Zealand has in this difficult time expanded its trade with the region. It is worth recalling that New Zealand’s military contribution to the stability of South-east Asia dates back for over 25 years and has laid the foundation for a broadly-based and important relationship.
In response to the deterioration in the strategic situation the United States has deployed major forces to the Indian Ocean against possible threats to the vital Gulf oilfields. There is now open discussion in Japan about the ability of its own defence forces to protect Japanese interests against the potential Soviet threat to the Japanese homeland and to Japan’s sea lines of communication in the Western Pacific. In Australia, major increases in defence spending have been set in train. A vigorous and responsible debate about defence policy-something almost unknown in New Zealand-has been sparked off. What direction should New Zealand’s defence policies take?
Complacency, merely because a direct threat to New Zealand’s interests is not immediately apparent, would be irresponsible. By the same token, loose talk about neutrality-armed or, otherwise-is out of touch with reality. There is no basis for comparison of New Zealand with countries such as Sweden or Switzerland. What we need is a defence policy for New Zealanders consistent with the facts of New Zealand life. These are that we have a long tradition of being active in international affairs: we do not wish to be passive so that others may determine our future; rather we wish to continue to take a constructive and positive part in helping resolve international problems. The hard issues will not be overcome if countries like New Zealand stand aside from them. Our willingness to make our contribution in the past has to a great degree established New Zealand’s reputation as a sound and constructive country. This Government will continue to base its defence policies on such principles.
Nevertheless the nub of the matter must of course be national defence: the defence of New Zealand and its immediate interests. There are two related issues here which must be thought through. First, as I have said, New Zealand’s interests can be threatened almost anywhere in an interdependent world simply because of the array of vital links we now have with so many other countries. Second, the strategic circumstances of our region are such as to defeat the ability of a small country to cover the options; we are simply too small and lacking the resources to be able to sustain all-purpose defence forces. In the past-in wartime-New Zealand has worked up to the mobilisation of a huge proportion (over 40 percent of GNP in 1943) of its manpower and resources to defence. In today’s circumstances the distortion to our national life of an even remotely comparable effort would be irrational and unacceptable to New Zealanders.
It is nevertheless within our capacities to maintain military forces able to ensure control over our own immediate area and to operate in the South Pacific region, if need be, should low-key emergencies arise. Our forces, if deployed in the South Pacific, would collaborate with our regional partners-Australia and other South Pacific neighbours. This then is one leg of our defence policy. New Zealand forces for such purposes must be mobile, capable of flexible response, highly trained and professional-and it is only through close association with the forces of our larger partners and friends that our forces can maintain and develop their professional standards. The second basic proposition for a rational defence policy follows on from this. Because New Zealand cannot hope for self-sufficiency in defence, it must build into its alliance relationships an effective pattern of defence co-operation. We. would hope to achieve from this co-operation not only support should any military challenges ever exceed our capacities but a framework within which New Zealand could make its own contributions again, if needs be, to the defence of the wider interest we share with our partners. This is not pandering to the whims of larger powers; nor can it be represented-though some will no doubt try-as interventionsim. It is nothing more nor less than recognition that New Zealand is not a place apart but that our interest can be threatened-directly or indirectly-in many places and in many ways. For that reason we must maintain armed forces which can, if necessary, operate further afield than our own region-though that must be the primary focus for them. Such forces must be able to work closely with the forces of our partners, Australia and the United States. This is what ANZUS is all about-in its military sense. Such forces should also be able to hold their own in other situations, for example in the peacekeeping role-as they did to such credit last year in Zimbabwe.
Security objectives are of course best met by pursuing policies designed to prevent a direct threat arising. Our foreign and defence policies are of course shaped accordingly. Indeed it can be argued that if war does occur then such policies have failed. Defence is therefore not simply a matter of preparation against an unknowable and seemingly unlikely possibility of war. It is rather a function of everyday policies and activities with the aim of showing that any temptations to war will be counter-productive. To this end there must be close integration of defence and foreign policies. In time of peace effective defence forces under-pin the foreign policy aims of dealing in a positive and constructive way with the world. For example, the New Zealand Force in South-east Asia is a tangible demonstration of our interest in and support for stability in that part of the world. For the same reasons New Zealand has a Mutual Assistance Programme, under which we provide military aid and training to the ASEAN and South Pacific countries. Defence issues cannot be overlooked: economic and social development can only be pursued in conditions of security.
Against this background the Government sees our armed forces as fundamental to the expression of our national interests. We wish to foster a New Zealand sense of New Zealand’s place in the world-as opposed to letting others impose their views on what that place should be and where the balance of our interests should lie. The Government therefore will continue to provide for the maintenance of soundly-based, proficient, and effective armed forces. Such forces are not a luxury to a modern State. They are not something remote from the concerns of ordinary New Zealanders. Rather they are a fundamental and vital part of the community, able through the application of disciplined skills to come to the aid of that community, in many ways day in and day out through the year. Essentially however they exist as a mark of New Zealand’s determination to stand on its own feet and to deal with the world in a flexible way. They must have the capacity to respond to a wide range of opportunities -as well as likely pressures that exist.
Since the armed forces play such an important part in our national life, it has given me great pleasure to return last year, after an absence of almost a decade, as Minister of Defence. It has given me even greater pleasure to see that our defence forces are in good heart. They represent a major and continuing investment by New Zealanders in New Zealand. By their high professional conduct and first-class standards they give full return. Defence has perhaps not been given the attention it deserves in our analyses of the future. Nevertheless those directly involved have continued, regardless of the absence of informed debate, to ensure that the country has at its service small but effective armed forces of which all New Zealanders can and should be proud.
INTERNATIONAL DEFENCE RELATIONSHIPS
The ANZUS Treaty remains the ultimate guarantee of security in the region, and the relationship reflects the high degree of commonality of political and strategic interests of the three partners. In keeping with the obligations assumed under the treaty, New Zealand continues to participate in ANZUS exercises, training activities, and unit and individual exchanges. Details of these activities are referred to elsewhere in this report. New Zealand is to host the Thirtieth ANZUS Council Meeting in June 1981 and maintains its commitment to the ANZUS forums tasked with developing and monitoring ANZUS military capabilities.
The potential for strategic and regional instability continues, and under these circumstances, New Zealand’s contribution to the security of the Pacific Basin is inextricably tied to ANZUS. We are determined to maintain our defence capabilities at current levels-despite the economic pressures we face -and to pursue defence policies in co-operation with our allies which will help underpin security and stability in our region.
Defence Co-operation with Australia
The Australia-New Zealand Defence Consultative Committee and the Australian and New Zealand Ministers of Defence met in Auckland in February 1981. In the communique issued at the end of the meeting Ministers reaffirmed the close defence relationship between the two countries. In effect the two Governments co-ordinate their defence efforts within the concept of a single strategic area.
Progress continues to be made in developing bilateral defence cooperation in various fields. The short term trans-Tasman exchanges of individual service personnel begun in 1979-80 have been maintained and now contribute usefully in the development of ANZ training collaboration. The Australia-New Zealand Defence Supply Working Group has met twice during the year; although progress is being made it is slow and will depend on the outcome of wider negotiations on a closer economic relationship with Australia.
Five Power Defence Arrangements
Following informal talks at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting at New Delhi in September 1980, it was decided to re-activate multi-national exercises under the Five Power Defence Arrangements. A meeting in Canberra in November 1980 drew up an exercise programme and financial guidelines which were approved by the FPDA Joint Consultative Committee which met in Kuala Lumpur in January 1981. New Zealand has welcomed these initiatives which reflect the continuing concern of the five countries for regional stability.
Maritime, land, and air exercises (the latter conducted under the auspices of the Integrated Air Defence System to which the Five Powers contribute) are included in the exercise programmes for 1931-82. It is planned that New Zealand host a combined land exercise in 1982; meanwhile New Zealand forces will take part in FPDA land exercises in Australia this year, an lADS air exercise and a maritime exercise in the South China Sea.
New Zealand Presence in Singapore
New Zealand Force South East Asia, comprising Force Headquarters, an infantry battalion, supporting elements and an RNZAF support unit, continues to be stationed in Singapore. The joint exercises, training and Mutual Assistance Programme activities conducted with the Singaporean and Malaysian Armed Forces provide considerable benefits to the participating nations. Furthermore the presence of the Force demonstrates Ne~ Zealand’s continuing interest in the stability and security of the region.
Mutual Assistance Programme
In 1973 the Government decided to place its defence assistance activities with ASEAN and South Pacific states within the framework of a Mutual Assistance Programme (MAP). As its title implies, the emphasis in this programme is on two-way benefits. The broad objectives are to support New Zealand foreign policy by maintaining and strengthening bilateral relations in the defence field, and to make a contribution to the effectiveness and self-reliance of the armed forces of the countries participating in the programme. In return New Zealand seeks access to advantageous training facilities and deployment opportunities in those countries. The countries currently participating in the programme are Fiji, Tonga, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. Assistance provided under the programme is confined in the main to the provision of training in New Zealand, the deployment of training teams overseas, and the secondment of a small number of New Zealand personnel for tours of duty of up to 2 years duration. During the past 12 months 430 personnel received training in New Zealand. This is the largest number to train in this country in any 1 year since the programme was initiated.
Defence Co-operation with Nations in the South-west Pacific
More than half of those receiving training in New Zealand in 1980-81 under the auspices of the MAP were members of the Royal Fiji Military Forces. Two hundred and thirty-one Fiji personnel attended courses or received on-the-job training; two graduated near the top of the New Zealand Army 12 month initial officer training course at Waiouru. Other training included attendance at Army trade, and officer and NCO promotion courses, and Navy seaman promotion and midshipman courses. Many of the Army personnel who received specialist training in New Zealand subsequently joined the Fiji battalion currently serving with the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon. In addition to the training provided in New Zealand, a number of courses which do not require specialist training facilities are now conducted in Fiji by New Zealand Army and Navy instructors and are designed to meet specific RFMF requirements. During the year seven RNZN training teams visited Fiji for short periods to train members of the Fiji Naval Squadron in such subjects as diving, gunnery, seamanship, navigation, damage control, and communications. Instruction, advice and assistance in driving, catering, stores, clerical procedures, regimental signals, regimental police, medical orderly, armourer, and other fields were provided by 21 Army teams. New Zealand ceased to provide an officer for the position of Chief of Staff RFMF in December 1980, when a local officer was appointed. For the first time since World War 11 New Zealand does not now provide a seconded officer from its own armed forces to fill either of the two top positions in the RFMF. Four personnel are currently serving with the RFMF on secondment. An engineer officer commands the RFMF’s engineer corps, two NCOs serve as clerks of works with the Rural Development Unit, and another serves as a catering adviser and instructor.
The Army and the RNZAF were again able to utilise training areas in Fiji to maintain and develop skills required for operations in tropical conditions. Over 500 regular and territorial Army personnel took part in six tropical training exercises, four of which involved selected Army units which trained in close-country operations, while the other two were extensions of courses conducted in New Zealand designed to enable
participants to practise individual skills in a tropical environment. Royal New Zealand Army Medical Corps representatives attached to each contingent also provided medical assistance to villagers living close to the
In June RNZAF Hercules, Skyhawk, and Andover aircraft and Iroquois and Sioux helicopters deployed to Fiji for the RNZAF’s annual tropical exercise. During the exercise helicopter and fixed wing transport aircraft were made available in support of the Fiji Government’s Cyclone Wally reconstruction programme and carried nearly 160 tons of supplies to those areas worst affected. Orion and Skyhawk aircraft exercised with Fiji Naval Squadron vessels and training was given to RFMF personnel in drills applicable to helicopter operations on land and at sea. HMNZS Taranaki and HMNZS Waikato took part in exercises with vessels of the Fiji Naval Squadron during their visit to Fiji in November.
There was also a substantial increase in the number of servicemen from the Tonga Defence Services receiving training in New Zealand during the last 12 months. Fifty officers and NCOs undertook promotion courses, trade training, store man, communications, infantry, and driving courses or received instruction in seamanship. In addition one member of the TDS attended the Army’s 12 month initial officer training course. An Army NCO is currently serving as a vehicle mechanic instructor at the TDS Trade Training School and the purchase of workshop tools required by the school was funded from the MAP. In June, a defence communications team visited Tonga and assisted with repair work on TDS communications equipment. Later in the year an RNZAF officer conducted a course on international affairs in Tonga for members of the TDS.
Papua New Guinea
Six officers of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF) attended RNZAF Junior Command and Staff College courses, two subsequently undertook short attachments to No. 1 Squadron to gain operational experience. A further officer completed the RNZAF’s Senior Command and Staff College course and an NCO load master is currently serving a 6 month attachment with the RNZAF. Twenty-eight servicemen completed a basic’ parachute training course begun the previous year. Two New Zealand officers continue to serve as instructors at the Joint Services College at Lae. A three man dental team visited Papua New Guinea in July and conducted a refresher course for military and civilian dental therapists concentrating on the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. In January New Zealand Special Air Service instructors undertook a study into the feasibility of conducting a course in Papua New Guinea for PNGDF personnel in basic and advanced cliff climbing techniques, and a physical training instructor provided advice and assistance to the PNGDF in his specialist field.
Defence Co-operation with the ASEAN States
New Zealand Force South-east Asia works closely with the Singapore Armed Forces. Elements of the Force undertake conventional and war gaming exercises with the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) and Force personnel attended SAF courses including parachute continuation, advanced armour-infantry officer and unit emplaning. Assistance given to the SAF in Singapore during the year included training in air refuelling techniques, demonstrations of air drops of heavy equipment and aerial delivery operations and navigation training. A RNZAF engineer officer is currently serving on a 2-year tour of duty with the RSAF and a navigation instructor was seconded in January for a similar period. Skyhawk aircraft of No. 75 Squadron deployed to the area in September to take part in Five Power Integrated Air Defence System exercises with Australian, Singaporean, and Malaysian forces. A 170-man Singapore Army infantry company visited Waiouru for Exercise LION WALK March-April 1980 to develop their open and close warfare skills. Limited support was given by New Zealand Army and RNZAF. In March 1981 a 155 man SAF Commando Company took part in a New Zealand SAS exercise (GOLDEN DRAGON) in the North Island to develop canoeing, cliff climbing and tracking skills. Courses attended by 11 SAF personnel who received training in New Zealand during the year included, army officer promotion, advanced physical education, air despatch and a 14 month course designed to train a pilot to wings standard. An exchange of para-jump instructors between the RNZAF’s Parachute Training Support Unit and the SAF School of Commando Training took place in late March.
New Zealand Force South-east Asia also maintains a high level of contact with the Malaysian Armed Forces. In November a joint Malaysian/New Zealand Army exercise (T AIAHA TOMBAK Ill) was held in Johore: 1 RNZIR exercised with 7 Malaysian Infantry Brigade, with New Zealand artillery, engineer, and logistic elements from Singapore and the RNZAF’s Support Unit also taking part. The exercise provided 1 RNZIR with valuable practice in most aspects of conventional warfare. During the year RNZAF Support Unit gave support to the Malaysian All Arms Tactics Training School, Pulada, in the form of air assault operations, air observation for mortar shoots and troop movements and also assisted the Special Warfare Training Centre at Malacca and the Royal Malaysian Navy base KD Malaya. Force personnel attended Malaysian combat tracker and combat survival courses. Each year a New Zealand Army officer attends the Malaysian Armed Forces Staff College. Eighty-five Malaysian Armed Forces personnel, 15 of whom continued training begun in the previous year, attended a variety of courses in New Zealand including army officer promotion, parachute, SAS, military police, radio mechanic, and advanced radio and signals. For the first time two Malaysian Army cadets are currently attending the Army’s initial officer training course and a Malaysian Air Force officer is attending a 14 month pilot’s course. Under the exchange programme one RNZN officer is serving with the RMN and a RMN hydrographic officer is attached to the RNZN. Two Army officers are on the instructing staff of Pulada. In August an RNZAF officer flying strike aircraft on the RMAF squadron and his Malaysian counterpart who served with No. 75 Squadron completed their tours of duty.
In March a 175 man Malaysian company deployed to New Zealand in RNZAF and RMAF aircraft to take part in Exercise SOUTHERN SAFARI with New Zealand, British, and Australian personnel. It was the first occasion on which aircraft of the Royal Malaysian Air Force had flown to New Zealand and on which a Malaysian company had participated in a multilateral exercise in this country.
Ten Indonesian servicemen trained in New Zealand, including one officer who completed a Skyhawk conversion course, three naval officers who received on-the-job training at the dockyard, three personnel who were attached to the Papakura dental unit, an officer who attended the RNZAF’s Senior Command and Staff College and two officers who undertook army courses. HMNZS Canterbury took part with Indonesian naval units in Exercise SELINDO III which was held in the Java Sea in May, and in November a team of Indonesian officers visited New Zealand to study the New Zealand Services contribution to fisheries resource protection activities. In the same month a group of air force officers came to New Zealand to discuss with their RNZAF counterparts the scope of future exercises between the RNZAF and the Indonesian Air Force. The Indonesian Armed Forces made available an officer for 5 months to carry out a course of advanced language instruction at Wellington Polytechnic. A New Zealand Army officer began the 12 month Indonesian Army Staff College course in March. He is the fifth officer to attend the course.
Training received by six Thai officers during the year included attendance at the RNZAF Senior Command and Staff College course and an army officer promotion course, and on-the-job training at the dockyard and at RNZAF bases in certain aspects of aircraft maintenance. Students and directing staff of the Thai National Defence College visited New Zealand in May on a study tour.
The first New Zealand officer to attend the Armed Forces of the Philippines Command and General Staff College completed the course in November. In February Army and Navy elements together with units from Australia, the United States, and the Philippines took part in SPECW AREX 81, a special warfare training exercise held in the Philippines.
EXERCISES, TRAINING EXCHANGES, AND OPERATIONS
In August-September HMNZS Otago and an RNZAF Orion participated with units of the USN, RAN, and the RAAF in a major maritime exercise (SANDGROPER) which was held off the coast of Western Australia. Andover, Hercules, and Orion aircraft deployed to Fiji in June for Exercise TROPIC 80 a large-scale air exercise. Exercise TRIAD 81 was the Army’s main contribution to the ANZUS exercise schedule. It was a command post exercise at Waiouru and brought together American, Australian, and New Zealand commanders and staff for practice in the conduct of defensive operations. Phase I of TRIAD was an Air Force tutorial and command post exercise, involving forces from the United States and Australia in addition to those of the RNZAF. Phase 11 was a major joint Army-Air Force command post exercise. In March 1981 soldiers of 2/1 RNZIR participated in Exercise SOUTHERN SAFARI in final preparation for service with 1 RNZIR in Singapore. Infantry soldiers from the British Army force based in Hong Kong and the Malaysian Army, along with the Royal Australian Air Force Ground Defence Unit, also participated in Exercise SOUTHERN SAFARI. Air support for the exercise was provided by the RNZAF. Exercise CAPTIVE LIGHTNING is an annual exercise involving US Army personnel. InJuly 1981 a 550 man contingent from the 1/5 Infantry Battalion (BOBCATS) of the 25th Infantry Division, based in Hawaii, undertook cold weather training at Waiouru and also demonstrated the use of battalion weapons including the TOW anti-tank guided missile.
Exercise CRUSADER was the umbrella code name for a number of concurrent and co-ordinated exercises conducted by the British Army on the Rhine (BAOR) in September 1980. British Regular and Territorial Armies and the Army Reserve, along with the armies of Belguim, Netherlands, West Germany, and the United States, were involved. The New Zealand Army provided 30 officers as umpires for the phase of the exercise which tested 1 British Corps (Exercise SPEARPOINT). This opportunity, not only to observe, but to adjudicate on large scale manoeuvres, gave invaluable operational experience. In March 1981 a 120 man composite company, made up of soldiers from each Task Force Region, was formed to train with the Singapore based 1 RNZIR. This exercise allows New Zealand based soldiers to gain experience in battalion level training in a jungle environment.
Other Exercises, Training Exchanges, and Operations
New Zealand hosted two maritime exercises during the year. AUCKEX 80 was held in October and LONGEX 81 during March-April. Units of the USN, RAN, and RAAF participated in each exercise. RNZAF Orion and Strikemaster aircraft also took part in AUCKEX 80. HMNZS Otago also trained with various American and Canadian Armed Forces units during deployment to the West Coast of North America early in the year. On completion of RIMPAC 80, which was covered in last year’s report, HMNZS Canterbury worked with the USN ships while en route to Japan and, on the return passage to New Zealand, with the Indonesian Navy. During May HMNZS Monowai was deployed to an area north west of Fiji to observe the People’s Republic of China missile tests, in company with Australian and United States units.
The New Zealand Army has established a number of short, 4 month, individual exchange programmes to broaden the military experience and knowledge of the participants and at the same time promote wider cooperation with other armies. The exchanges undertaken during the past year were:
a. Exercise LONGLOOK. Between August and December 1980 30 New Zealand soldiers were attached to British Army units in Germany and the United Kingdom while 30 British soldiers served in New Zealand Army units.
b. Exercise ANZAC EXCHANGE. This is a continuing Defence programme and this year 13 soldiers served in Australian Army units for periods ranging from one to 3 months.
c. Exercise PALEX. Between September and December 1980 four soldiers were attached to United States Army units in Hawaii while the New Zealand Army ‘hosted four United States Army personnel. This was the first of a planned series of individual short term exchanges between the United States Army and New Zealand Army.
d. Exercise PACIFIC PACK is an annual exercise involving a 50 man unit exchange between a New Zealand Army and a Hawaii based United States Army unit. This year the exchange involved artillery units and provided participants with the opportunity for familiarization with each other’s equipment and operational doctrine whilst providing challenging and interesting training.
The Army has also continued to send soldiers to Australia to participate in Australian Army exercises. A 20 man contingent of signals personnel participated in Exercise DROUGHT MASTER, a formation level field training exercise. An eight man group of Armoured Corps soldiers has joined the Puckapunyal based 1 Armoured Regiment to undergo armoured warfare training using the Leopard main battle tank. New Zealand Army officers have attended the Australian Chief of the General Staffs Exercise, the Commander 2 Division’s tactical exercise, and the Commander Logistic Command’s exercise. All these contacts are valuable in helping to ensure New Zealand Army procedures are in line with those of the Australian Army.
Exercise TASMAN RESERVE is an annual company level exchange with Australia of Territorial Force and Citizens Military Force units. The exercise was conducted in March 1981 and involved soldiers from the Tauranga based 6th Hauraki Battalion RNZIR.
The United States Army based in Hawaii has conducted a series of command post exercises over recent years. Small groups of New Zealand Army officers have been invited to these exercises both as observers and to fill exercise Staff appointments. This year, for the first time, a task force headquarters drawn from 1 Task Force Region participated.
The TROPIC series of exercises was again conducted in Fiji and gave the Army the opportunity to train 500 men in a tropical environment. During their stay in Fiji each contingent carried out small-scale civil aid projects.
The New Zealand Army sent small groups of soldiers to special warfare exercises in the Philippines (Exercise SPECW AREX), and Australia (Exercise WESTWIND).
RNZAF Orion aircraft deployed regularly to Australia, Hawaii, and Canada to practice anti-submarine warfare techniques with local forces. In September an RNZAF Orion flew to the United Kingdom for the first time to join in the annual anti-submarine warfare competition (Exercise FINCASTLE) between the Air Forces of New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdon. The New Zealand crew won the Fincastle Trophy for achieving the best overall results over the whole exercise.
In May an RNZAF Hercules participated with Australian and Canadian Hercules in a tactical transport exercise staged in Australia. The series of reciprocal tactical training visits with the RAAF continued in August when four RNZAF Skyhawk aircraft went to Williamtown. Eight RAAF Mirage aircraft crossed to RNZAF Ohakea later in the same month, followed in February by a further six Mirages. In August helicopters from RNZAF’s No. 3 Squadron and the RAAF took part in Exercise BLACKBIRD in the Southern Alps to give crews experience in operating at high altitudes in mountainous terrain.
ROUTINE OPERATIONS AND ACTIVITIES
International Aid and Other Support Activities in the South Pacific and South-east Asia
In June Iroquois, Andover, and Sioux aircraft were used to provide assistance for the Fiji Government in the wake of Cyclone Wally. Within 12 hours of receiving the call an RNZAF Hercules carrying a helicopter, Army tents, and blankets was on its way to Fiji landing at Nadi only an hour or so after it became operational again after the storm. In 84 hours of flying operations over a period of seven days, two RNZAF helicopters delivered over 100 tonnes of food, blankets, tents, and medical supplies to the victims of the flooding, and carried 500 passengers, including sick and injured villagers and medical and survey parties.
The following month two helicopters were flown to Fiji by Hercules, to help in a rebuilding programme in isolated areas. During the period June-August six senior NCOs from the Royal New Zealand Engineers supervised the construction of a number of hurricane relief houses in the Navua District on the main island of Viti Levu in response to a special request from the Fiji Government’s Prime Minister’s Relief and Rehabilitation Committee. In February of this year an RNZAF Orion aircraft took aerial photographs of damage done by Hurricane Arthur in the Yasawa Islands and on the sugar plantations in the Nadi area to help the Fiji Government assess the extent of losses.
In June-July a Hercules was sent to Port Moresby to help with internal flying support as part of New Zealand’s contribution to the South Pacific Arts Festival. Building materials for an aid project were carried from Singapore to Myitkina in North-east Burma during November. As in previous years RNZAF aircraft also undertook casualty and medical evacuation in the South Pacific.
In June of last year HMNZS Tui visited Apia in Western Samoa to mark the 18th Independence Celebrations. HMNZS Tui was also present at Rarotonga for the Opening of Parliament and went on to help define EEZ maritime boundaries between the Cock Islands-Western Samoa and Tokelau-American Samoa at the request of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In addition to its specialised programme of work, the hydrographic survey vessel HMNZS Monowai provided a New Zealand presence and accommodation for the Prime Minister’s party at the South Pacific Forum Meeting at Kiribati, visited Funafuti where some survey work was carried out in the lagoon and then represented New Zealand at the Vanuatu Independence Celebrations at Vila.
On its return from a goodwill visit to Japan, HMNZS Canterbury called at Port Moresby where the ship had the honour of a visit from the Governor General and the Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea. Honiara and Cairns were also visited on the return trip. In the first quarter of the period under review HMNZS Otago was in the Eastern Pacific, visiting San Francisco, Esquimault, and Vancouver before exercising with Canadian forces. This was followed by visits to San Diego and Portland with associated exercises with the United States Navy.
In late November HMNZS Otago at Apia embarked the United States Ambassador to New Zealand, the Administrator of the Tokelau, and other officials for passage to the Tokelaus for the signing, on 2 December, of the Tokelau-United States Boundary Treaty. Whilst in the Tokelau the ship was able to provide maintenance assistance for various items of equipment on the islands and to undertake some coastal surveillance.
From May through to August of last year four 60 man groups of Regular Force and Territorial Force engineers, predominantly from 2 Field Squadron and 5 Support Squadron, worked in the Solomon Islands under the auspices of the Bilateral Aid Programme. A number of water supply jobs, an airfield survey, construction of a wharf extension and bridge repairs were completed on many outlying and remote islands. The deployment, although logistically difficult and not without its problems made successful use of Army engineers on straight forward construction work which is greatly valued by small isolated communities.
New Zealand Area
RNZN ships visited Raoul Island a number of times with research and other personnel from various Government departments. An Army engineer team sent during July-August at the request of the Department of Lands and Survey to upgrade the Boat Cove landing site was unsuccessful because very bad weather and sea conditions led to the loss of stores and materials. The RNZN also provided Government agencies with transport to other outlying islands such as Bounty Island and the Antipodies; a scientific party was landed on Auckland Island and another party brought back from Campbell Island. HMNZS Otago took part in the commemoration of the Napier earthquake and was present in the Bay of Islands during the Waitangi celebrations.
A group of Army engineers from 7 Field Squadron, supported by personnel from other RNZE units, was taken by RNZAF aircraft to Great Barrier Island to carry out roading work for the New Zealand Forest Service and bought back to the mainland by HMNZS Taranaki. Of the many other engineering works carried out by RNZE units throughout New Zealand in support of central and local government authorities, schools, sporting, and charitable organisations, the 700 foot Bailey bridge built at Mangere by 1 Field Squadron for the Ministry of Works and Development, the construction of a section of mountain road at Mount Cheeseman by 3
Field Squadron for the South Canterbury Winter Sports Association and further work by 2 Field Squadron at the Queen Elizabeth 11 Army Memorial Museum are of particular interest.
The Army also provided help to victims of the Taieri Plain floods and gave fire fighting assistance to the New Zealand Forest Service during the Hira State Forest fire in February of this year. The Police Department called on Army assistance for disposal of explosive devices and ordnance. as well as on other matters. Apart from this kind of specialist or emergency assistance. it is increasingly difficult for the Services to meet many of the requests received from other Government Departments or civilian organisations for assistance. The once large stocks of World War 11surplus bedding, cooking and camping gear have now been used up. New items of equipment are costly and scarce and must generally be kept for their primary military tasks.
RNZAF transport aircraft have also again helped with the systematic monitoring of the White Island volcano by Victoria University. Forty eight hours flying time were devoted to the support of police operations and various other tasks such as helicopter assistance during the flooding on the Taieri Plain and carriage of the Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Collection to various cities throughout New Zealand. The RNZAF received a great deal of publicity in March when RNZAF Hercules aircraft were used in a combined operation with the Royal Australian Air Force to carry passengers stranded on both sides of the Tasman by industrial action in Australia and New Zealand. The operation was highly successful.
An open day was held at RNZAF Base Ohakea on 28 February. Elements from all RNZAF Bases contributed as did aircraft from the RAF, RAAF, and USAF. It is estimated that close to 80,000 people attended what proved to be a highly successful display which amply demonstrated the skill and professionalism of our Air Force.
During the October 1980-March 1981 period Defence again provided a major part of the New Zealand contribution to joint United States-New Zealand logistic operations in Antarctica. Such operations provide valuable opportunities for intensive logistic training.
A cargo handling team of 19 Army personnel worked at McMurdo Sound airfield from the first week in October to early December and was then replaced by a second team of similar size. One officer and one Warrant Officer were deployed for the complete summer season (October 1980-February 1981) to give continuity in cargo handling command appointments. Ten Army personnel also helped with unloading of sea cargoes at McMurdo for 2 weeks in January 1981. The Air Force made 12 return flights to McMurdo Sound transporting 136 passengers to the Ice and 146 back to Christchurch; 302 700 lb of freight were carried McMurdo to Christchurch and 178 912 lb Christchurch to McMurdo in a total of 156 flying hours.
Search and Rescue
Two hundred and sixty eight hours were taken up in search and rescue operations in New Zealand, and offshore as far afield as the Pacific islands. Throughout the year a 2 hour SAR standby capability was maintained with helicopters at Auckland and Wigram, and fixed wing aircraft at Auckland and Ohakea. RNZN ships were engaged in search and rescue operations at sea. RNZAF personnel also worked with the Police and the Army in providing SAR training demonstrations, lectures, and static displays for local SAR organisations.
As its contribution to the management of New Zealand’s fishing resources the Ministry of Defence carries out surveillance and policing of foreign fishing activities in the 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone.
The Patrol Craft Squadron, comprising HMNZ Ships Pukaki, Hawea, Taupo and Rotoiti undertook these duties in the territorial sea. HMNZS Taranaki combined her role of resource protection and basic sea training and carried out deeper water patrols with assistance from the RNZAF and HMNZ Ships Otago and Waikato. Other RNZN vessels reported on the activities of foreign fishing vessels during the course of their normal duties. Five hundred and fifty courtesy and investigatory boardings were carried out by RNZN vessels and two arrests made. Throughout the period Orion aircraft maintained surveillance of the New Zealand area of responsibility to the north and south of New Zealand in addition to having a significant role in policing the EEZ.
HMNZS Monowai’s primary hydrographic task at the start of the year was sounding off-shore on the West Coast of the South Island and surveying reefs of Jacksons Bay and Milford Sound in preparation for a new charting scheme in this area. Gravimeter and magnetometer surveys were carried out concurrently in co-operation with the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. During the period March-June Monowai was diverted twice to the Auckland Islands in support of a Lands and Survey Department scientific and land management expedition and to the central South Pacific to provide a New Zealand presence in the splashdown area of the People’s Republic of China’s first Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile test. In July Monowai sailed for 5 weeks in the Pacific during which time, among other tasks, deep ocean soundings were obtained thus contributing to bathymetric archives at the same time as performing useful national services.
During a docking and maintenance period September-October additional hydrographic and oceanographic equipment was fitted to Monowai to equip her for the ANZCAN cable route survey between Australia, New Zealand, and Canada via Norfolk Island, Fiji, and Hawaii. The survey was to be carried out under contract to Teleglobe Canada acting for an intergovernmental system management group and consisted of a detailed exploratory survey to define the optimum route north bound and a proving survey on the return voyage. Monowai was employed on this survey from 10 November 1980 until the last week of March 1981. This task has extended the RNZN Hydrographic Service’s capacity experience into a new sphere as well as providing a financial off-set against the cost of the ANZCAN cable.
The first new inshore survey craft, HMNZS Tarapunga, launched at Whangarei in November 1979 was commissioned at Auckland on 9 April 1980. Her sister ship, HMNZS Takapu, was launched at Whangarei in May and commissioned at Auckland on 8 July. She completed trials and joined Tarapunga at Napier in September when both vessels worked as a pair to complete their survey in January 1981. In February they commenced work on a new survey of Foveaux Strait and the approaches to Bluff Harbour. These small 104 tonne ships have proved most versatile and represent a great advance on their predecessors both in personnel comfort and their suite of hydrographic equipment.
During the year the last four charts planned for New Zealand and its offshore islands in the new 1:1/4 million series were completed. The metrication of New Zealand fathom charts continues and, in addition, two new metric charts were produced. Acquisition of oceanic data continues and is an invaluable source of information for updating both our international and 1:1Y4million series of charts as well as providing data for the production of a new international chart, New Zealand-Santa Cruz Island to I’de Pascua (Easter Island) presently being compiled at the scale of 10 million. Oceanic data played a further important role, forming the basis for the compilation and production of contoured bathymetric charts, a prerequisite for HMNZS Monowai’s planned surveying of the ANZCAN cable route. During the year a total of eight new charts, three new editions and 54 reprints or revisions were published. Sales to the shipping industry and the public together with service issues totalled 55 283 charts (all fully corrected up-to-date) and 5857 books. In addition 30 600 copies of the Weekly Notices to Mariners and 600 copies of the Annual Summary were published, and 254 long range Navigational Warnings were issued for the South Pacific area.
Recruitment and Retention
The general trend toward improved retention in all three services experienced in the previous 3 years continued during 1980-81 to the extent that some recruiting quotas have had to be reduced to enable the services to remain within authorised manpower ceilings. There remain some shortages of experienced personnel with advanced technical qualifications, particularly in the RNZN, but the reduced rate of personnel turnover is having the expected effect of acting to gradually redress these deficiencies. The main recruiting effort remains directed at attracting young men and women for officer and apprentice/ cadet entry schemes which provide the highly qualified long serving servicemen and women on whom the services will depend.
Conditions of Service
Improved conditions of service have assisted in achieving the higher retention rate at present being experienced. This has been sufficient to allow normal rights of release to be restored to all categories of officer aircrew within the General Duties Branch of the RNZAF. The Defence Act 1971 was amended during 1980 to clarify the ability of the Defence Council to restrict releases when certain categories of personnel were declared to be at a critical level of manning, and to ensure that servicemen give an adequate return of service where expensive or lengthy training has been provided by the Ministry of Defence.
Defence education services continue to play a key role in supporting general, trade and technician training within the Services to assist in meeting increasing technological requirements. Service personnel are also showing an increasing interest in undertaking voluntary study courses to improve their knowledge and skills. The Services continue to encourage participation in sport in both general recreational and competitive environments. Inter-unit and inter-service tournaments were held in all major codes and Combined Services teams again competed in national tournaments.
The major research projects undertaken by the Defence Psychology Unit (DPU) included the completion of the evaluation of the present officer reporting system and the launching of an investigation into the effectiveness of the selection tests used in the recruiting process. Additionally, DPU provides advice, assistance, and research into all aspects of selection, allocation, training, and utilisation of armed forces personnel.
Defence chaplains contributed to service welfare not only in the provision of religious services, worship, sacraments, and moral education, but also in a wide range of pastoral care services.
The medical and dental services also supported Defence welfare activities by providing a high standard of care. The opening of the maternity facilities at Waiouru Hospital has provided a necessary service, the lack of which was previously causing concern to both service and civil medical authorities.
The Army Garrison Institute traded profitably, providing a worthwhile service for soldiers and their dependants. The range of canteen services has been expanded in Waiouru and Burnham, not only to ensure growth but also to help ameliorate the comparative isolation of those camps. Army Garrison Institute profits have again been the major contributor to Army Central Welfare Funds, which are used to finance welfare projects throughout the Army. Examples of such projects are:
a. Five double garages for living-in servicemen at Addington Barracks.
b. Two houses and garagesfor the establishment of a leave centre on the shores of Lake Tekapo.
c. Squash courts at Ngaruawahia Camp.
1980-81 saw the establishment of the Army Group Insurance Plan. Through this plan a soldier can obtain insurance cover during service of $20,000 for a premium of $40 a year. Similar cover can be obtained for a spouse for $36 per year. This cover is convertible on completion of the soldier’s service.
During the past year 277 personnel proceeded overseas for courses of varying length, most going to Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. As in the past, emphasis was upon initial officer, postgraduate, technical, and application training, with appropriate use being made of staff college, specialist, and management courses as well. Provision was also made for selected servicemen to undergo training that will assist the armed forces in assessing changes in operational doctrine and technology, and thus help maintain a basic level of expertise in various fields. The cost of this training has been rising dramatically, and care is taken to ensure that any training conducted overseas is essential to maintain processional standards and that such training cannot currently be conducted in New Zealand. The number of personnel serving on overseas exchanges remained at 17, the aim of such exchanges being to keep alive particular operational skills, to train officers for specific posts on their return to New Zealand, and to broaden the military experience of selected personnel.
During the year 1 April 1980 to 30 March 1981, training integration of men and women completed its first full year with women undertaking similar new entry training to that of their male counterparts. Fifty six women were recruited during the period.
During the year, 3119 personnel received training on courses of from half a day to one year’s duration. The totals include 388 new entry trainees, 2140 basic, advanced or refresher trainees and 40 officers of whom four graduated from university. Training assistance was continued to the navies of Fiji, Tonga, Malaysia, and Thailand with 58 students receiving training. In addition, 238 RNZNVR and Sea Cadet personnel, 255 Government department, HMNZ Dockyard, Merchant Navy, and other New Zealand service personnel were given training.
The implementation of the systems approach to training in the RNZN which was initiated in 1975 received considerable impetus during 1980 with the publication of the RNZN Training System manual and the establishment of a Training Technology School at HMNZS Tamaki. To date some 80 officers and ratings have been trained in various aspects of training technology.
Thirteen officers were commissioned in December 1980 after graduating from the Officer Cadet Training Company at Waiouru. 4279 Regular and 517 Territorial Force Army personnel received individual training on a total of 671 courses conducted by Army schools and depots. In addition, 473 Regular Force soldiers and 1175 Territorial soldiers qualified on recruit training courses conducted at Waiouru and Burnham and Army also accepted 451 personnel form the Navy, Air Force, and Police on courses.
During the year 21 officers and 16 non-commissioned officers graduated from aircrew courses. Eleven officers graduated as flying instructors while two navigators and four electronic operators completed advanced training. The period saw 17 newly commissioned officers and officer cadets graduate from officer training. Thirty-seven students completed junior staff training while seven RNZAF, five New Zealand Army and three RNZN officers graduated from the RNZAF Staff Course. Twenty-eight university cadets completed degrees or qualified for further training. RNZAF conducted 140 ground training courses from which 1712 personnel successfully completed training.
Use was made of RNZAF facilities to provide training assistance to the Aviation Industry Training Board, New Zealand Police, Ministries of Transport and Energy, and Aero Clubs. Training covered helicopter maintenance, teaching practice and aviation medicine with 231 civilians attending 22 courses.
Non-Regular Forces Strengths of the non-regular forces
The RNZNVR re-organised in 1979, has continued with the development of the training now needed to meet its revised tasks. A total of 158 officers and ratings completed training in RNZN frigates, patrol craft and HMNZS Monowai and in addition eight senior ratings filled sea-going appointments for varying lengths, mainly in patrol craft. RNZNVR participation in Exercise ROLL CALL 80 involved 43 active and retired Naval Control of Shipping personnel, augmented by 37 personnel from other branches. The enthusiasm and professionalism displayed by Reserve personnel has drawn favourable comments. Although recruiting has been satisfactory and 112 personnel carried out introductory training in HMNZS Tamaki, the average strength of the RNZNVR has remained at 376, due mainly to release but partly to a restriction on numbers of recruits that can be accommodated in HMNZS Tamaki for training.
A final re-allocation of the five remaining motor launches has been made to RNZNVR divisions. They provide limited afloat training and have assisted in other routine tasks such as escort and harbour support during a USN nuclear ship visit. The ordering of replacement craft already approved by the Government is eagerly awaited.
The Territorial Force strength at 31 March 1981 was 6150. Enlistments totalled 1568 (an increase of 103 over the previous year); 1042 volunteers completed 12 weeks’ basic training. During the year Territorial Force personnel took part in exercises in Australia, Fiji, and Malaysia, and a Territorial Force officer visited Hawaii to investigate training for the Territorial Force with American Reserve Forces. Retention of personnel in the Territorial Force continues to be a problem.
The Territorial Air Force continued to provide for air traffic control appointments and to man the RNZAF’s band. Studies on the provision of further meaningful roles for RNZAF non-regular personnel are nearing completion.
Approval in principle has been given to raising progressively the strength of the Territorial Air Force and to establishing non-regular force squadrons on each major RNZAF base to provide an initial expansion capability to the Regular core force. These squadrons will be established as finance becomes available.
Steady growth in the number of Sea Cadet Corps units and Air Training Corps squadrons reflects increasing community awareness of the need to give more attention to the guidance of youth. Two schools with dormant cadet units withdrew from the school cadet scheme in 1980 and another is expected to withdraw in 1981. However, one school joined the scheme during the year and several others are in the process of joining or have shown interest. Schools joining the scheme now have to satisfy enhanced entry criteria which ensure viable units and high standards of training. Established school cadet units have also been successful in recruiting more officers, which has led to an improved officer to cadet ratio.
The numbers of permanent and temporary civilian staff and casual wage workers employed as at 31 March 1981 totalled 3149, as detailed in table 1. While this falls short of the approved civilian staff ceiling at that date, 52 offers of employment have been made to skilled tradesmen and specialists to be recruited from the United Kingdom for the life extension conversion of HMNZS Taranaki. Forty-seven of these offers have been accepted already and appointees are expected to arrive by mid-1981, at which time the Ministry’s civilian ceiling will be fully committed.
The Ministry’s civilian staff ceiling has been increased by a further 157 positions from 1 April 1981 to allow for the employment of certain former temporary employment programme workers engaged on essential tasks. With this increase, and taking account of the “sinking lid” policy, the Ministry’s civilian staff ceiling will be 3305 by 31 March 1982, which equates with the actual head-count of staff employed at the end of 1978.
DEFENCE MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
Management Services and Accounting
Increasing attention has been given by the Government in recent years to achieving more effective management of government finance. The 1978 report by the Controller and Auditor General stressed the need for greater delegation of operational and financial responsibilities to managers of activities, which must be matched by a proper system of decentralised budgetary control with prompt and regular management reports. To give effect to these aims a major restructuring of the Defence Vote has been undertaken. This new Vote structure will allow decentralisation of financial authority and responsibility to take place. However, full acceptance of this responsibility can only be achieved after certain conditions are met. Managers must have up to date reports of progress and be able to interpret the information contained in those reports. The new defence computer has the capability to provide a substantial range of management information through the use of terminals sited around New Zealand at points adjacent to responsible managers. These terminals still have to be acquired and staff trained in the daily use of this equipment.
With decentralisation, managers will have a much greater responsibility for providing input into the Defence 3-year forecast and annual budget. Managers and their staff will need to be trained in these government procedures before accepting this new responsibility.
Increasing use was made of management services expertise, with some 37 studies being completed covering a wide range of defence responsibilities. In addition, a variety of other tasks were undertaken ranging from detailed studies of micrographic, reprographic and equipment requirements, through training and attendance at various courses, to the production of articles and booklets for wide distribution. Management of the Defence Suggestions scheme continued and considerable work was carried out in preparation for the introduction of the SPECTRUM methodology for project management.
Electronic Data Processing
In July 1980 approval was given by the Government for the Ministry of Defence to replace its 15 year old mainframe computer. As a result of formal tendering a contract has been signed with Sperry Univac for the supply of a 1100/62 El computer, which with enhancements, will meet the administrative computing needs of the Ministry of Defence throughout the 1980s. Computer system resilience will be enhanced further by the development of a distributed network of terminals and small computers. Conversion of the existing computerized systems to the new computer requires that an interim International Computers Limited mainframe be retained on lease until completion of the conversion in March 1982. Development of a prototype computer-automated supply system is being undertaken on a small stand-alone computer. This system is being developed to replace the Ministry’s obsolescent accounting machines which are no longer capable of being maintained adequately. Prototype testing is due to commence at RNZAF Base Auckland in July 1981. The continuing shortage of trained Defence EDP staff limits the EDP Directorate’s ability to satisfy the rapidly increasing demand for computerized systems within the Ministry of Defence.
A design report on the secure annex to the Freyberg building was prepared last year, but approval to progress to the working drawing stage is still awaited. To alleviate overcrowding, to improve security and to allow space for the installation of essential new communication equipment, approval is currently being sought for the complete refurbishment and reallocation of floors in the Stout Street building.
The Bunny Street building renovation is well advanced and the medical facilities are already in use. The Dental Unit’s accommodation will be ready in 1981. The top floor of the Housing Corporation Building at Porirua has been completely renovated and redesigned as a computer installation, and the new Defence computer hardware is already installed and is being prepared for commissioning.
Capital Works and Maintenance
Continuing improvements in the administration of recently approved large works projects within both the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Works and Development have maintained the impetus previously given to the building programme. Upgrading and replacement of substandard living and working accommodation is continuing, with provision being made for accommodation and facilities to cater for changing operational, organisational, and technological requirements. The policy of using existing buildings wherever economically practicable is being continued, but many older buildings which cannot be immediately replaced continue to place heavy demands on the maintenance appropriation.
During the year, the second 60-man barrack block at HMNZS Tamaki was completed. Completed Army projects include the new Camp HQ at Papakura, an improved mechanical transport workshop at Sylvia Park, junior ranks’ barracks modernisation, radar storage building and ancillary workshops at Waiouru and a new officers’ mess at Linton. Works completed for the RNZAF include the provision of clamshell doors to No. 4 hangar, Woodbourne, extensions to the sealed taxiway there and the construction of three 45-bed barrack blocks at Wigram. Projects well advanced or nearing completion include alterations to officer accommodation at HMNZS Tamaki and refurbishment of the main barrack block at Hobsonville.
Tenders have been let for: side slipping facilities at HMNZ Dockyard, Arch Hill Army Centre Auckland, senior NCOs’ mess and quarters at Waiouru and Burnham, refurbishing the main barrack block at Whenuapai and A and D wings of the main barrack block Ohakea, airmen’s club stage 11 and new air traffic services building at Ohakea, and a new trade waste disposal system at Woodbourne.
Tenders are being called for a new 60-bed junior ranks’ barracks at Waiouru, and a new junior ranks’ mess at Trentham, while approvals in principle will facilitate planning towards a new combined operations school at HMNZS Tamaki and a new combined mess for junior ranks and senior NCOs at RNZAF Shelly Bay. Following approval in principle, granted by the Cabinet Works Committee in 1980, for the construction of a new wharf at HMNZ Dockyard, the Ministry of Works and Development Special Projects Team is proceeding with the design for this new facility.
Work is also proceeding on the provision of increased fuel storage facilities at a number of establishments, while accommodation in a number of minor locations is being renovated and modernised. Fifteen houses were completed during the year: one at Belmont, 10 at Trentham, two at Nelson, one at Whangaparaoa and one at Tekapo. Construction of a further six houses at various locations is proceeding, while one house has yet to be approved. Upgrading of 15 houses at Waiouru Camp, classified as being of an inferior specification, is nearing completion. A further 38 houses in this category at Waiouru are to be upgraded during the forthcoming year.
Equipment and Supply Support
During the year, significant decisions have been taken on the equipment for the Services over the decade, and major orders have been placed for 26 Scorpion fire support vehicles, two Boeing 727 transport aircraft, three Cessna 421C aircraft and replacement radars for Ohakea and Whenuapai air bases. Two major projects, one for the modernisation and life extension of HMNZS Taranaki and the other for the updating of the RNZAF Orions, have also been authorised. These projects, both in excess of $40 million each, will involve Defence in undertakings of a size and type never before encountered and have emphasised the need for better management methods. Project management will be the main tool to identify the critical decision points, analyse and control expenditure and ensure that time scales are met. The contract with Alvis Limited of the United Kingdom for the supply of 26 Scorpion fire support vehicles was signed in August 1980. Deliveries are expected to commence in May 1982 and be completed in June 1983. The Scorpion vehicles will replace the obsolete M41Al tanks which have been in service since the Korean War. The Scorpion vehicles will enable the New Zealand Army to maintain techniques and conduct exercises in armoured tactics and will provide a limited operational capability. Approval has been given for the procurement of phase 2 of the four phase medium girder bridge (MGB) project. The MGB is an advanced technology bridge of UK design and manufacture and has been well proven in the UK and many other countries. The MGB equipment now purchased and on order will enable the Army to maintain and develop bridging techniques and provide the operational capability to establish a crossing of up to 60 metres in length. It is planned to place an order this financial year for the supply of a number of advanced technology high frequency combat radio sets to equip the Ready Reaction Group of the New Zealand Army. The current medium range combat radios have been in service for over 20 years, are obsolete, and no longer meet the operational requirement. The current order represents stage 2 of a five stage programme to replace the Army’s in service range of tactical radio sets. The Army’s existing operational ‘B’ vehicles are deteriorating with age and their reduced serviceability limits Army’s ability to fulfil all its tasks. The requirement for the replacement of the fleet is now urgent. Last year Cabinet agreed to Army’s requirements for approximately 1300 vehicles, specialised containers and associated equipment in addition to a number of motorcycles to replace the current fleet. The approved requirement achieves an overall fleet reduction of some 500 vehicles and represents a significant real saving to Vote: Defence. Tenders are currently being evaluated within the department and it is hoped that a decision by the Government can be announced by September 1981. The three F27 Friendship aircraft, purchased from and modified by Air New Zealand, entered service during 1980 as navigation training aircraft. They replaced the aged Devons. In addition to their training role, the Friendships undertake EEZ surveillance patrols and search and rescue in the South Island. Three Cessna 421C aircraft were delivered to the RNZAF during February 1981 and will enter service with No. 42 Squadron when their avionics suite has been installed. The aircraft will be employed in the light transport/communications role, and will provide VIP air transport when appropriate. In January 1981, Government approval was granted for the purchase of three part-life Boeing 727-100C civil jet aircraft to provide additional capacity in the long range transport role. The aircraft are expected to enter service with No. 40 Squadron during 1981. During 1980 the Royal New Zealand Air Force entered into various contracts for Phase One of the update of its P3B Orion aircraft. The prime contractor for the programme is the Boeing Aerospace Company, which will modify the first aircraft at its Seattle plant in the United States. Modification of the remaining four aircraft will be undertaken by local industry in New Zealand, and the programme is scheduled for completion by April 1984. The modifications, which will enhance the RNZAF’s surveillance capability, include the provision of an improved navigation and data handling system, the installation of an improved surveillance radar, the installation of an infra-red detection system to aid night search, and provision of improved tactical displays. Components are now being assembled for the refurbishment of the precision approach radars at the two main operational bases, Ohakea and Whenuapai. Updating of the radars will be carried out in New Zealand using RNZAF manpower, and should be completed by June 1982.
Under RNZAF sponsorship, local industry has developed a cable-free micro-miniature radio communications system which will have wide military and civil aviation application. The radio is also expected to have the capacity for development in the export market.
Preparations for the modernisation of HMNZS Taranaki are being carried out by HMNZ Dockyard and will extend the life of the ship at least 10 years. Major items of equipment received during the year by the RNZN have included two inshore survey craft, HMNZS Takapu and Tarapunga, constructed by Whangarei Engineering Construction Limited.
The Government decision to offer HMNZS Monowai to survey, under contract, possible cable routes across the Pacific Ocean necessitated the purchase at short notice, of a wide range of specialised oceanographic survey equipment.
The expected improvement in deliveries of clothing items has occurred. It is intended that the introduction of new style clothing will be substantially completed during the forthcoming year although financial restrictions may cause some delays in this area and result in some curtailing of normal issues. There may need to be some reduction of maximum stock levels of some items should sufficient funds not be forthcoming.
The Fleet Maintenance Unit, in addition to providing support to ships of the RNZN, gave technical assistance to ships of the French, Australian, and United States navies during AUCKEX 80. The aging RNZNVRmotor launches have absorbed an increasing level of fleet maintenance support during the year. Fourth year apprentices from HMNZS Tamaki were employed in the Unit for short periods of on-the-job experience, with encouraging results during the period under report.
The reorganisation of the Auckland Naval Command resulted in a marine engineering element being added to the existing weapons electrical engineering elements of the Fleet Trials and Analysis Unit (FT AU). Without any increase in overall manpower this has fulfilled a long-standing requirement to ensure the best possible results using thorough performance analysis.
In particular, the first half of 1980 saw this Unit committed to the setting to work and sea trials of the Whangarei-built new survey craft, HMNZ Ships Takapu and Tarapunga. Analysis of frigate gunnery and guided weapon fire control systems throughout the year has highlighted the problems of maintaining out of date equipment. The FT AU has continued to operate the Whangaparaoa degaussing range and ships degaussed included HMAS Swan. The deep range, required for ships of larger than frigate size, is now in a poor state of repair and renewal of sea and land cables is currently being investigated.
The Ship Maintenance Co-ordinating Authority (SMCA) provided technical documentation of the new survey craft. New systems for the control of alterations and additions and modifications on ships were undertaken. HMNZ Dockyard has continued its primary task of providing maintenance support to the fleet, giving assistance to operational ships of the RNZN and visiting naval forces and undertaking manufacture and repair of naval store items. A limited amount of assistance has been provided to craft from other Government departments.
The discovery of serious pipe defects in the steam systems of HMNZS Taranaki and HMNZS Waikato necessitated a 5-month unscheduled repair of the former and an extension of 9 weeks beyond the 17 weeks schedule for refit of the latter. A 44-week extended normal refit has commenced on HMNZS Canterbury, and is programmed for completion in July 1981. Docking and essential defect maintenance periods were provided as programmed for HMNZS Taranaki” and HMNZS Monowai”. A four day emergency docking for shaft repairs was concluded for HMNZS Otago. Two patrol craft refits were completed during the year in addition to two routine slippings. Maintenance and some operational defect support has been provided for other naval small craft and also launches operated by the New Zealand Police, Ministry of Works and Development, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Construction of a replacement Commodore’s barge has been completed and one 7.3 metre glass reinforced plastic craft for close inshore survey is nearing completion. HMNZS Irirangi has maintained radio services to Australia, Honolulu and Vancouver and communications links with naval ships at sea, and has assisted with search and rescue communications as required.
The Improved Maintenance Programme (IMP) already implemented on Orion, Hercules, Strikemaster, and Iroquois aircraft was extended to Sioux, Andover and Skyhawk aircraft during the year. Maintenance arrangements for the Friendship aircraft have been negotiated with Air New Zealand, and engineering planning for the introduction of the Cessna 421C and Boeing 727 aircraft is proceeding. Studies still continue on the expansion of computer techniques to assist with aircraft resource management. Preparation for the C130 outer wing change has been completed. An RNZAF engineer has departed for the United States for resident engineer duties with the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation for the duration of the programme which is scheduled for completion in October 1981. The RNZAF inventory of aircraft has been purchased over the past 16 years from a variety of national and military sources. As the aircraft have also been purchased at different times, the resulting communication and navigation equipment varies considerably between aircraft, even between the same make of aircraft bought at different times. The RNZAF has commenced work on avionics refits which are intended to rationalise and standardise the avionics installations as well as upgrade the aircraft capability and performance. This rationalisation programme should be completed within five years, at the end of which time the present RNZAF inventory of 21 different VHF and UHF radios will have been reduced to four types, airborne T ACAN sets from three to one, and Inertial and Omega navigation equipment fully standardised.
The Ohakea air traffic control complex is being refurbished in conjunction with the Civil Aviation Division of the Ministry of Transport and is planned to be operational in the first quarter of 1982. During the year all Skyhawk engines were disassembled and examined following the discovery of cracks in a number of fifth stage compressor discs. Defective engines were repaired and all engines returned to service. Pending resolution of this disc problem, which is under investigation by the United States Navy and Pratt & Whitney, minor operational limitations have been imposed and more frequent disc examinations scheduled. Studies are being undertaken for the development of long term aircraft structural management plans to provide a foundation to determine the useful life remaining in each type of aircraft presently in service.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
During the year, the analytical studies team at the Defence Scientific Establishment (DSE) analysed the TASMANEX 79 maritime exercise. This included forces from New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research projects were also undertaken on requirements for reusable stores such as aircraft engines, on software standards, and on the support of operational computer systems.
A continuing commitment for the Establishment is the noise ranging of RNZN and RAN ships from the Great Barrier Island field station. The effort to accomplish this is greatly increased by the frequent need to repair damage caused by trawlers operating in the prohibited area.
The metallurgy section continued to provide day-to-day assistance to all three services in the solution of problems associated with metals and petroleum products. The research effort in this area has been divided between two programmes. Firstly, health monitoring of gas turbines is undertaken to provide an early warning of system failure. The results of preliminary engine alert trials using computer-sided decision making are being studied. Secondly, research is being conducted into stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, and plain failure. These studies have had application to RNZN boiler tubes and RNZAF aircraft components.
A prototype computer-based signal processing system developed for the RNZAF has had a successful laboratory test and an aircraft evaluation is due for completion in March 1981.
Work for the Army continues on the design of automated test equipment for radios and a study into tactical communication management systems was undertaken during Exercise TRIAD. This year saw the first major use of a new underwater acoustic measurement system developed at DSE. The equipment, comprising digital multichannel electronics and a versatile sonor array, gives a significant advance in capability to study underwater noise. The first major data set collected with the equipment was during Project AKARANA, a joint experiment with Australian scientists. A noise survey of an area off the western coast of Australia was conducted as a follow-on from a previous joint study of conditions to the north and west of New Zealand. Progess has also been made in the computer modelling and forecasting of underwater acoustic conditions in the New Zealand area. An extensive sea test of the DSE towed hydrophone array was carried out to study the potential of this type of detection system in New Zealand waters. A number of specific environmental effects (such as interference from underwater volcanoes) were studied in detail. Data was collected on the long term meandering of the array which will assist the subsequent analysis of directional signals.
DEFENCE INDUSTRY POLICY
Co-operation between Australia and New Zealand is continuing with a view to identifying the opportunities for joint procurement and maximising the defence industry potential of each nation to mutual benefit. The development of an enhanced defence industrial capacity in conjunction with Australia has benefits in both strategic and economic terms. At the February meeting of the New Zealand and Australian Ministers of Defence, held in Auckland, Ministers expressed satisfication that arrangements had been concluded for the overhaul in New Zealand of LM 2500 engines for the RAN and that arrangements for propeller blade overhauls in New Zealand were nearing finality. Ministers noted the progress that had been made in identifying other potential areas for defence supply co-operation between Australia and New Zealand and in developing practical arrangements for this. Several investigations into the production of items of defence equipment in New Zealand, normally purchased overseas, are beginning to show signs of being successful. These include the plastics, canvasware and micro-circuitry industries, in which area there could well be export potential. Purchase of the locally developed Onward pack has commenced following extensive trials conducted by the Army.
THE DEFENCE COUNCIL
The Defence Council as at 31 March comprised: The Rt Hon D. S. Thomson, M.C.,E.D.,Minister of Defence. Vice Admiral N. D. Anderson, C.B..C.B.E.,Chief of Defence Staff. Mr D. B. G. McLean, M.Sc.,M.A.(Oxon), Secretary of Defence.
Major General B. M. Poananga, C.B., C.B.E., Chief of General Staff. Air Vice Marshal D. E. Jamieson, C.B. a.B.E., Chief of Air Staff. Rear Admiral K. M. Saull, Chief of Naval Staff.
During the year the Hon T. F. Gill, C.B.E., D.S.a., retired as Minister of Defence to become New Zealand’s Ambassador to the United States. The Secretary to the Treasury and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs are associate members of the council and the attendance of representatives of other departments of State is sought as required.
VISITORS TO NEW ZEALAND
A number of political leaders and senior defence officials visited New Zealand during the year. Among these were:
Admiral R. L. J. Long, USN, Commander-in-Chief Pacific Command, United States of America.
Dr. R. J. O’Neil, Head, Strategic and Defence Studies, Australian National University.
Vice Admiral S. I. Gravely, USN, Director, Defence Communications Agency, United States of America.
Major General A. L. Morrison, A.a., D.S.a., M.B.E., Commandant Royal Military College, Duntroon, Australia. Admiral Sir James Eberle, K.C.B., Commander-in-Chief, Fleet, United Kingdom.
Rear Admiral S. Shapiro, USN, Director of Naval Intelligence, United States of America.
Major General C. H. Belzile, C.M.M., C.D., Chief of Land Doctrine and Operations, Canadian Defence Forces. Major General R. A. Grey, D.S.a., General Officer Commanding Field Force Command, Australian Army. General Lew Allen Jnr, Chief of Staff, United States Air Force.
Their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of Kent.
Air Vice Marshal Roesman, Operations Assistant to the Chief of Air Staff, Indonesia.
Senator Sam Nunn, Senate Armed Services Committee, United States of America.
Honourable D. J. Killen, M.P., Minister for Defence, Australia.
Mr W. B. Pritchett, Secretary for Defence, Australia.
Air Marshal Sir Neville McNamara, K.B.E., A.a., A.F.C., Chief of Air Staff, Royal Australian Air Force.
Major General H. E. Wolff, Commander Western Command, United States Army.
Lieutenant General James D. Hughes, USAF, Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Air Force, United States of America.
Major General Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Jnr, Vice Commander Pacific Air Force, United States of America.
Air Vice Marshal R. W. Barnes, Deputy Chief of Air Staff, Royal Australian Air Force.
Major General V. A. McPherson, C.D., Q.H.S., Surgeon General, Canadian Forces.
General Dato Zain Hashim, Chief of Army, Malaysia.
Lieutenant Colonel Teo, Deputy Commander, Republic of Singapore Air Force.
A group from the National Defence College of Thailand visited New Zealand on a study tour. Naval ships from Australia and the United States of America visited New Zealand during the year.
The Ministry acknowledges with appreciation the hospitality provided by various clubs, associations, industry, and private individuals to visiting personnel.