NZ Naval Report to the Defence Council – 1968

Extract from the report of the Naval Board of the Defence Council for period 1 April 1968 to 31 March 1969

INTRODUCTION

As a small power with worldwide interests, New Zealand has long held that the only rational basis for defence policy lies in the concept of collective security. Our aim has been to make collective defence, whether through the United Nations or through regional defence arrangements in our areas of strategic concern, as effective as possible. In this context we have seen as our primary interest the promotion of peace, progress, and security in South-east Asia and the Pacific. I believe this interest will continue and that no New Zealand Government will be able to ignore either New Zealand’s geographical relationship to Australia and to South-east Asia, or the internal and external pressures to which the nations of South-east Asia are subject. We must continue to take particular account of the fact that instability and insurgency there carry the risk of further conflict and wider hostilities. We must consider the possibility that if the situation in South-east Asia were to deteriorate, Australia and New Zealand could again face a threat to their security and national interests. Certainly, if the states of an area of such strategic importance as South-east Asia were to come substantially under communist control the strategic balance in Asia, and so in the Pacific, would significantly alter. To guard against this situation we must seek by collective action to promote regional security as an essential basis for co-operation and economic advancement. Such collective effort should, we believe, enable us to establish a claim for help should we ourselves ever be in need of support and protection.

Since 1955 New Zealand has implemented this policy by contributing forces under our collective defence arrangements in South-east Asia, particularly by the forward deployment of forces to the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve in Malaysia and Singapore. Our main purpose has been to provide ready forces-some deployed in the region and others available on call if needed-to help maintain security in South-east Asia. Such security, maintained with external assistance, was, we calculated, important to friendly governments if they were to sustain confidence while the slow and difficult task of nation building, social modernisation, and regional co-operation gained momentum.

New Zealand’s contribution to the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve has been dependent on the British command and base structure in Malaysia and Singapore. This is now being run down following the British decision in January 1968 to withdraw their forces from Southeast Asia by the end of 1971. As a result, New Zealand has, during 1968, had to reassess its forward defence role in South-east Asia and, with its partners, reconsider future Commonwealth defence arrangements. The Prime Minister and I attended the First Five Power Conference at Kuala Lumpur in June 1968. There Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, and the United Kingdom reaffirmed their interest in the peace and stability of South-east Asia. The conference enabled us to establish a broad pattern for future defence co-operation. We placed particular importance on the affirmation by Malaysia and Singapore that their defence was indivisible. The five powers also agreed to participate in a major military exercise in 1970 designed to demonstrate Britain’s ability to send forces from the United Kingdom in emergency. Following further discussions with the other Governments and further staff studies, New Zealand joined Australia in indicating, in November 1968, that we could maintain forces in Malaysia and Singapore until the end of 1971. It was decided in January 1969, however, that the Army units at present based at Terendak would move to Singapore by early 1970. Subsequently, after further study of the complex issues concerning our longer-term position, both Governments announced, on 25 February 1969, that they would maintain their forces in Malaysia and Singapore after 1971. Arrangements for the relocation of our forces and their deployment outside the logistic framework of a major ally are now being worked out preparatory to a Second Five Power Conference to be held in Canberra in June 1969.

We shall, however, face some difficulties in reaching finality in such arrangements while the war in Vietnam continues. United States initiatives in halting the bombing of North Vietnam and the opening of peace talks in 1968 offered prospects of an early settlement. While this possibility was set back by a further communist military offensive in early 1969, it is possible that some progress towards a settlement may be made later in 1969, but it is as yet too early to foresee any changes in V Force levels.

At the conclusion of the third year of the period covered by the 1966 Review of Defence, the Government had made decisions on all its major re-equipment proposals. In particular, in 1968 orders were placed for a new frigate, HMNZS Canterbury, for 14 Skyhawk combat aircraft to replace the RNZAF’s Canberras, and for 16 additional helicopters. This will bring the value of equipment ordered in the 3 financial years to $64 million. By the end of the 1968-69 financial year, $12 million had been spent or committed on new equipment for the Army Field Force.

With the end of the review period in sight, the forces in being are flexible enough to meet the changing strategic situation, as we move into the 1970s, without excessive changes in shape or size. Despite limited resources, I believe New Zealand must seek to maintain defence forces capable of contributing effectively in the sort of regional defence situations we may have to face in the 1970s. In the future, therefore, our aim should be to give higher priority to forces in being to meet specific emergencies while ensuring that we are able to respond effectively in the event of major hostilities.

In reviewing defence policy in the light of the British withdrawal from South-east Asia, the Government has given special attention to the problems we face in supporting and supplying the forces to be kept forward. In general, New Zealand will have to take over this responsibility as British logistic support diminishes. In this context, our aim will be to co-operate closely with Australia. We are also examining, with Australia, the possibility of developing a joint Australian and New Zealand logistic support area and of expanding our defence production capabilities.

The Defence Act of 1964 specifically charged the Defence Council with investigating the possibilities of greater integration of common functions among the three Services. As can be seen in the body of this report, the Government has pressed ahead with action designed to reduce administrative overheads. In 1969 we intend to take a further step in introducing into the House a common disciplinary code for the three Services. Under study are proposals for a substantial integration of the main administration components of the three service headquarters. This would not mean the end of the three Services as separate identities.

I feel that I should take this opportunity to make it clear that this has never been the Government’s intention. It was stressed in the 1966 Review of Defence Policy that, for operational reasons, New Zealand had to retain the three Services as the 1964 Defence Act provided. This is still the Government’s policy; we shall, however, pursue integration with the aim of simplifying and centralising policy controls and command and administrative functions to the greatest extent possible.

DAVID THOMSON, Minister of Defence.

OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND TRAINING OVERSEAS

General

The new and expensive material now being provided to our forces demands a high level of operational and maintenance standards which can only be achieved by extensive training, much of which must be carried out overseas. Without such training, maximum value and full utilisation of the new equipments cannot be obtained.

The increased co-operation, particularly between the N.Z. Army and the RNZAF, in major exercises and the participation of all three New Zealand Services in joint exercises with our Allies have provided a valuable opportunity to accumulate experience in the fields of common doctrine and operational procedures.

Navy

HMNZS Waikato completed service as the RNZN contribution to the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve on 30 April 1968. During return passage to New Zealand, the ship visited Djakarta and Bali and Australian ports before arriving in Auckland on 16 May 1968. Waikato participated in Exercises AUCKEX/LONGEX 68 and then proceeded to pay visits to New Zealand ports. In September, the ship sailed for Australia to take part in Exercise SHADOW.

HMNZS Otago sailed from Auckland on 25 March 1968 to undergo refresher training at Pearl Harbour with the United States Navy Fleet Training Group. This was completed on 30 May with an overall grading of excellent. Otago then sailed for Singapore to begin service with the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve. During this period, the ship took part in the Far East Fleet exercises and paid visits to Hong Kang, Sasebo in Japan, and also to Chinhae and Inchan, in Korea, to coincide with the visit to New Zealand of President Park Chung Hee. Otago sailed for New Zealand on 22 November.

HMNZS Blackpool sailed far joint exercises in Australian waters an 15 May 1968 and participated in the Australian Maritime Exercise SHADOW before sailing to undergo refresher training at Pearl Harbour On 17 January 1969 Blackpool arrived in Singapore to begin duty with the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve.

HMNZS Endeavour continued her Antarctic supply duties and called at the Tokelau Islands, the Campbell and Antipodes Islands with stores and personnel carrying out special projects. In addition, HMNZS Endeavour sailed for San Francisco in April 1968 to embark a consignment of ammunition. A cargo of explosives was landed at Rarotonga for the Department of Maori and Island Affairs, and defence scientific work was undertaken en route.

HMNZS Kiama visited Australian ports and Fiji in addition to her normal role of fishery protection duties.

Officer Training Overseas

During the year, two senior officers (one Army and one Navy) commenced a course at the Imperial Defence College in London. Two Army officers and one naval officer commenced courses at the Joint Services Staff College in the United Kingdom. Three officers commenced staff training at the Army Staff College in Australia. Sixteen officers and one warrant officer attended shorter courses or attachments; one in the United States, and the remainder in Australia. One naval officer and one army officer attended the United States Armed Forces Staff College during the year. One RNZAF officer cadet is completing his second year of studies at the United States Air Force Academy at Colorado Springs in the United States, and a naval midshipman is undertaking a -year course at the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis.

TRAINING AND OTHER ACTIVITIES IN NEW ZEALAND

Exercises

New Zealand’s joint RNZN-RNZAF annual anti-submarine exercise period (AUCKEXjLONGEX 68) was held in the Hauraki Gulf – Bay of Plenty areas from 6 July to 3 August 1968. Participating units were HMNZ Ships Waikato, Blackpool, Inverell, and Kiama, Her Majesty’s Australian Ships Vampire, Yarra, and the submarine Oxley, Her Majesty’s Ships Llandafj, Carysfort, and the submarine Trump, and the United States Ships Caliente, Henry B. Wilson, Mullany, and USS submarine Medregal. Aircraft from the RNZAF, RAAF, and USN also participated throughout.

The annual RNZNVR exercise period (VORTEX TI) was held in the Marlborough Sounds, Cook Strait, and Tasman Bay areas from 29 December 1968 to 10 January 1969. Motor launches and personnel from the four Reserve Divisions took part, together with Kiama and the fishery protection motor launches, Mako and Kahawai.

An allied paper Naval Control of Shipping Exercise (RAIN CLOUD), using simulated forces and shipping, was held between 25 February and 8 March 1969. In this period the navies and maritime forces of America, Britain, Australia, and New Zealand combined to provide control and protection of merchant shipping in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. New Zealand participation was a combined headquarters in Wellington with control offices in the four main centres, which involved 84 RNZN and RNZAF personnel and 91 Reserve personnel of the Auckland, Wellington, Canterbury, and Otago Divisions of the RNZNVR.

Naval Operations in Home Waters

HMNZS Otago participated in the Treaty of Waitangi celebrations on 6 February 1969 and then sailed for 2 weeks’ exercises in Australian waters.

HMNZS Waikato participated in Exercise AUCKEX/LONGEX 68 and then visited New Zealand ports.

HMNZS Taranaki underwent extended refit and modernisation throughout the year and was recommissioned on 14 March 1969.

HMNZS Blackpool completed post-refit trials on 15 May 1968. Blackpool paid a visit to New Zealand ports before participation in AUCKEX/LONGEX 68. On 5 August 1968 Blackpool was despatched, with an emergency medical team embarked, to assist and escort to Wellington the liner Gothic, which had a serious fire on board.

HMNZS Endeavour made two round trips to McMurdo Sound, during which time fuel for the US. Navy’s Operation Deep Freeze was transported to Antarctica and DSIR stores and personnel were embarked, HMNZS Endeavour also carried out work for the Naval Research Laboratory and was engaged in dumping obsolescent ammunition.

HMNZS Kiama, in addition to carry out fishery patrols, participated in Exercises AUCKEX/LONGEX 68 and VORTEX ll.

HMNZS Inverell also took part in the AUCKEX/LONGEX exercise.

Training of Personnel

NAVY

Officer Training

The first year of the new university training scheme produced good results from those officers who had previously attended the Royal Australian Naval College and poor results from those entered direct to university. Four of the latter have been transferred to the non-degree scheme and are now training at the Royal Australian Naval College at Jervis Bay. Recruiting for the university training scheme continues to be good, and eight new entries, with three from the Royal Australian Naval College, commenced studies at the University of Auckland in February.

Artificer Training

Navy has now been recognised as an approved school by the Technicians Certification Authority for the initial 3 years of the New Zealand Certificate in Engineering. Good progress has been made in artificer training during the year, 24 candidates obtaining 86 passes out of 98 subjects sat towards the New Zealand Certificate in Engineering.

Naval Training-General

In accord with the continuing efforts being made to reduce the demand for overseas training, the training of Sonarmen First Class was, during 1968-69, undertaken in New Zealand for the first time, and three ratings have now qualified. The load on training facilities has continued to increase. Together HMNZS Tamaki and Philomel gave basic and advanced training to 1,779 ratings, including 14 from the Malaysian Navy. In addition, courses were conducted for 100 officers and 65 other personnel from the other Services and Government departments.

DEFENCE AID

Defence Aid to Malaysia and Singapore

The programme of defence aid to Malaysia and Singapore was further extended for another 3 years at an estimated cost of $450,000 up to 31 March 1972.

Under the programme additional items of equipment, comprising light machine guns and .303 rifles, and valued at NZ$165,000, were made available to the Armed Forces of Singapore. This year also saw the commencement of the training of Singaporean servicemen in New Zealand. During 1968-69, 160 servicemen (154 Malaysian and 6 Singaporean personnel) received training here. A total of 583 servicemen have been trained under the aid programme since its inception in 1964.

One New Zealand naval officer and ten ratings were seconded to the Singapore Sea Defence Force late in 1968 to assist with the setting up of a training school for Singaporean naval personnel. Four RNZN marine engineering ratings were posted in January 1969 for 2 years’ loan service with the Royal Malaysian Navy in continuation of a similar loan made in 1967. Three RNZN officers are also on loan to the Royal Malaysian Navy, and one Chief Petty Officer specialising in physical training is on loan assisting in setting up an Outward Bound School in Singapore.

Aid to the Pacific Islands

The RNZN has carried out fishery protection patrols around the Tokelau Islands and assisted in the transfer of persons between islands in that group. A naval diving team has continued reef-gapping operations at Asau in Western Samoa. This latter project is part of New Zealand governmental assistance in the development of a deep-water port at Asau. Apart from search and rescue activities, the RNZAF has maintained an air service to the Cook Islands and the Navy has assisted in the transport of explosives to Rarotonga and Niue for airfield construction projects.

A gift of 300 rifles and spares was made to Fiji and a gift of 200 was made to Tonga. Fifty officers and soldiers of the Fiji Military Forces were attached to Army units in the Auckland area and undertook formal courses at Army training establishments.

ANCILLARY ACTIVITIES

Survey Work

HMNZS Lachlan spent the first part of the year, until June 1968, on the survey of Coromandel and North Cape. The ship then commenced a refit and lie-up period, which was completed on 13 December 1968. In January 1969 Lachlan recommenced wark an the North Cape survey. The ship then visited Wellington, LytteIton, and Gisborne in February 1969, and carried aut a short survey near Bluff in connection with the Comalco scheme. The ship is currently engaged on the North Cape survey.

HMNZS Tarapunga was employed an the Coromandel survey for the first half of the year. During this period the ship assisted in the search and rescue incident concerning the fishing launch Yellow Fin. In May 1968 Tarapunga commenced refit and winter lie-up. In January 1969 the ship began work on the Waiheke Island survey.

HMNZS Takapu recommissioned in August 1968 and, after refit and lie-up, joined Tarapunga on the Waiheke Island survey.

Fishery Protection Patrols

Continuous and extensive patrolling of the New Zealand coast has been maintained throughout the year by up to five fishery patrol craft and HMNZ Ships Inverell and Kiama. The present patrol craft are now some 25 years old and present a continuous maintenance problem.

Search and Rescue Activities

During the April 1968 storm the three Services provided personnel and transport to assist police and civil defence workers in rescue work from the Wahine and personnel were placed on standby to assist with the evacuation of families and in clearing debris.

HMNZ ships were, in addition, actively employed in a total of 17 other search and rescue operations during the year. These included assistance following the loss of the Maranui, the provision of an escort for the disabled liner Gothic, and assistance to numerous private yachts and pleasure craft in difficulties around the New Zealand coast.

Assistance to Other Government Departments and Organisations

During 1968-69 the Armed Services were called upon to assist other departments and private organisations in a variety of tasks. For example:

Transport was provided for geologists and scientists of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and the Universities to enable them to undertake studies in remote areas; for Wild Life Division officers for work in outlying islands; for Justice Department special projects; for the Ministry of Transport for the carriage of mail, stores, and personnel to Raoul and Campbell Islands; for the carriage of Marine Department fishery inspectors; and RNZAF Hercules, DC6, and Dakota aircraft supplemented National Airways services at the time of the April storm.

Training facilities were provided for diving instruction for personnel of the Marine, Internal Affairs, and Tourist and Publicity Departments and the University of Canterbury. A leading seaman was loaned to the Outward Bound School at Anakiwa as an instructor for their January 1969 course. Two fire-fighting courses were conducted on behalf of the Marine Department and training facilities were made available at the HMNZN Dockyard for a DSIR technical trainee.

Other assistance included the provision of a cook for duty at Scott Base, Antarctica; personnel for security and administrative duties at the SEATO Conference in Wellington in April 1968; and military police during the visit of His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh and the President of the Republic of Korea. The Navy assisted with restoration work on the Motuihe Island wharf for the Hauraki Gulf Maritime Park Board; provided a diving team for the underwater survey of the Wahine; assisted in courts of inquiry into the loss of the Wahine and Maranui; investigated sites for a light on Three Kings Island; and helped in replacing a beacon on Kawau Island for the Ministry of Works.

NON -REGULAR FORCES

Details of the strengths of the Non-regular Forces are contained in table 2 of this report.

Navy

Whilst the maximum strength of the Royal New Zealand Naval Volunteer Reserve had to be reduced, for financial reasons, to a maximum strength of 400, all ranks, and paid training time was also reduced. these changes have not caused any great disruption in the pattern of Reserve activities.

Equipment, Supply, and Technical Services NAVY

Fourth Frigate

The order placed with Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd., Glasgow, on 6 August 1968, for the fourth frigate ensured the Royal New Zealand Navy would maintain its combat effectiveness. The ship, estimated to cost $21 million, is due for delivery in 1971. This will be the second of the RNZN’s Leander Class frigates; it will be basically the same design as HMNZS Waikato, but incorporating the latest improvements in design and equipment and some American weaponry.

The building of the vessel commenced in February 1969 and launching is expected to take place in May-June 1970. The ship is expected to be commissioned as HMNZS Canterbury in November 1971 and will then proceed to work-up in United Kingdom waters before sailing for New Zealand in approximately April 1972. Fabrication is at present on schedule.

Refitting

A special refit of HMNZS Taranaki, lasting over a year, was completed. This refit was similar to that completed in HMNZS Otago in early 1968 and all compartments and equipment in Taranaki have been restored to a high standard. As in Otago extensive refitting work in all departments was undertaken and several major improvements to operations room, sonar, communications, and radar systems were completed. One of the critical items of the refit was the overhaul and modernisation of the 4.5 in. gun mounting.

The first refit of HMNZS Waikato was commenced in January and is the first refit of a Leander Class frigate to be undertaken by HMNZ Dockyard. Refitting work was also undertaken an HMNZ ships Endeavour, Lachlan, and Inverell. HMNZS Blackpool received her intermediate docking during which time operational defects were made good. The diving tender Manawanui was given an extensive refit and the year was particularly busy with regard to’ refitting work an seaward defence motor launches and small craft.

Stores Branch

Following development of an electronic recorder by the Naval Research Laboratory, the New Zealand Inventions Development Authority is making arrangements far commercial production.

Research undertaken to determine the capacity of New Zealand industry to produce articles of uniform clothing formerly procured from overseas sources, has led to a major reduction of the schedule of items which require importation. Good progress is being made with standardisatian an New Zealand manufactured items of mess gear.

All Naval Dockyard stack records are now converted to mechanised machine accounting as a basis far computer input. Electronic data processing systems already effective in HMNZS Otago and HMNZS Taranaki will be extended to other ships and establishments as soon as practicable.

Naval Armament Depot (Auckland)

Major advances in armament servicing during the year included:

(a) Completion and occupation of a main laboratory group far examination of conventional explosives. This consists of three laboratories, each laboratory separated from the next by concrete traverse, the whole being under one roof and each laboratory air conditioned. Anti-static flooring and bench coverings have been incorporated.
(b) Commencement of full testing and servicing facilities far Mk 44 torpedoes (Navy and Air).
(c) Ninety percent completion of servicing and testing facilities far Seacat Mod 1 missiles. (d) The establishment of a joint services proofing section to carry out proof of all Services explosives. This section is manned by Army and Air Force personnel and civilian staff under the control of the Navy’s Superintending Armament Supply Officer.

In the Auckland Naval Command, construction work has consisted of a number of relatively small projects all of which have contributed to improved workshop facilities, upgrading of fire protection, and greater industrial safety. In the Dockyard a new fibreglass workshop has been completed whilst at the Armament Depot an existing building has been converted into laboratory rooms specially designed to meet the stringent safety requirements for the handling of explosives and missiles. Planning has been progressed for the centralisation of all Naval training in HMNZS Tamaki and workshop facilities for the first phase are almost complete.

During the year major construction for the RNZAF was again concentrated at Base Auckland on projects to support the operation of C130 Hercules transport, P3B Orion Maritime aircraft, and helicopters of the Battlefield Support Squadron. A new transmitter building has been completed at Ohakea whilst at other camps subdivision and renovation to existing barrack blocks together with the installation of fire protection systems has been undertaken.

The provision of Service housing continues to remain a serious problem and because of the demand on available finance for other urgent capital works the amount which can be allocated within this field must of necessity be restricted.

Defence Research

Since the end of 1967, the Naval Research Laboratory activities at sea have been considerably restricted by the lack of a research ship, although maximum available work has been carried out with naval ships. During this period, the laboratory has spent more of its time on ensuring the optimum effectiveness of maritime aircraft and on the design and construction of new and more effective instrumentation for work at sea and on more detailed analyses of past sea trials. Both these aspects of the programme have been considerably facilitated by the acquisition during the year of on-line data processing equipment.

A considerable amount of time has again been spent on improving the efficiency of the sonar equipment fitted to the RNZN frigates and new monitoring facilities are now being installed to ensure that a continuous check can be kept on its operation at sea. The metallurgical group has also continued its support to the Dockyard and the Navy in such fields as the prevention of corrosion, preventative maintenance, and fuel testing.

The New Zealand electronics industry is now reaching a point where it is able to provide equipment suitable for Service use and, with assistance from local manufacturers, the laboratory is developing several items of equipment which could have application in RNZN ships.

Education and Welfare

Education

Further co-ordination of educational functions among the three Services has taken place during the year resulting in greater uniformity in recruitment, conditions of service, regulations, and administration. A three-way cross-appointment of education officers has been arranged so that at present a Naval officer is employed at the Airman Cadet School, an Army officer at HMNZS Philomel, and a RNZAF officer at the Regular Force Cadet School. An officer for programmed learning has been appointed with the responsibilities for the co-ordination and gradual introduction of programmed learning techniques into the three Services. Investigations have been undertaken to determine areas where joint-Service courses could be held. In the field of foreign language training, courses on a tri-Service basis are to commence in June 1969.

Servicemen continue to show an interest in undertaking part-time study over a wide field to improve their general education, to increase their trade or technical qualifications, and for resettlement purposes. Excluding officer cadets on full-time university training schemes, 50 all ranks enrolled for part-time university studies while over 1,400 undertook correspondence courses. The most popular of these were of a trade or technical nature but those attempting management subjects and the revised School Certificate examination were also numerous.

It is not practicable to distinguish between formal education and general training especially in the trade and technician fields and these matters are covered elsewhere under the heading of training. On the more academic side the new School Certificate regulations, which permit, passes in single subjects has proved very suitable for Service requirements. At HMNZS Philomel of 104 School Certificate subjects attempted, 91 passes were obtained. At the Regular Force Cadet School, 28 cadets passed 1 or more School Certificate subjects, 1 cadet gained University Entrance, 4 cadets passed various Chamber of Commerce examinations, and in the Trade Certificates examinations 37 cadets passed 56 papers out of 60 attempted.

Welfare

The Naval Welfare Service was fully employed during the year with more than 1,000 visits being made to homes of personnel on routine welfare matters and pre-commissioning visits. Lectures have been given by welfare staff throughout the year to new entry training classes at HMNZS Tamaki and this innovation will be repeated during 1969. The Royal Naval Benevolent Fund has approved 94 applications for loans or grants during the year made up as follows-housing loans 67, financial hardship 20, and assistance towards funeral expenses.

Medical

A review of the medical boarding procedure has resulted in the adoption of one-doctor medical boards by all three Services, revised fees and streamlined administration. Progress has been made in the revision and reprinting of all medical documents on a tri-Service basis with some forms already in use.

The health of the Navy. Army, and Air Force continues to be good. The number of days lost by each member of the Services through illness or injury averaged between 3 to 4 days throughout the year.

ORGANISATION

The Defence Council

At 31 March 1969, the Defence Council comprised:

Hon. David S. Thomson, M.C., E.D., M.P., Minister of Defence (Chairman).
Lieutenant-General Sir Leonard Thornton, K.C.B., C.B.E., Chief of Defence Staff.
Mr W. Hutchings, Secretary of Defence.
Rear Admiral J. O’C. Ross, C.B., C.B.E., Chief of the Naval Staff.
Major-General R. B. Dawson, C.B.E., D.S.O., Chief of the General Staff.
Air Vice-Marshal C. A. Turner, C.B., C.B.E., Chief of the Air Staff.

The council has power to co-opt officers of other departments of State to assist it in its advisory role. The Secretary of External Affairs and the Secretary to the Treasury have continued to attend most meetings of the council for this purpose and, in addition, the Secretary of Industries and Commerce has attended on matters affecting New Zealand’s logistic association with Australia.

The council also had the benefit of the advice of General Sir Michael Carver, Commander-in-Chief, Far East, and Sir Stanley Tomlinson, of Her Majesty’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and His Excellency, Sir lan MacLennan, the United Kingdom High Commissioner in New Zealand.

The council met 21 times during 1968-69. The main considerations of the council were the effects of the British withdrawal from Southeast Asia, the future ANZAC presence in Malaysia and Singapore, the logistic support arrangements for our forces, and financial planning.

The Service Boards of the Defence Council

The Hon. David S. Thomson, M.C., E.D., M.P., continued to chair meetings of the Naval, Army, and Air Boards of the Defence Council.

At 31 March 1969 the Service Boards comprised, in addition to the Minister of Defence and the Chief of Staff of the particular Service:

Navy

Commodore L. G. Carr, D.S.C., A.D.C., Second Naval Member and Chief of Naval Personnel.
Commodore L. B. Carey, Third Naval Member and Chief of Naval Technical Services.
Mr A. B. Cole, Deputy Secretary of Defence (Navy).

(During the year the former Second Naval Member, Commodore J. P. S. ValIant, C.B.E., replaced Commodore L. G. Carr, D.S.C., A.D.C., as Commodore, Auckland, and Commodore Carr took up the appointment of Second Naval Member.)

The Royal New Zealand Navy hoisted its own New Zealand White Ensign for the first time on 20 June 1968. The new ensign is of the same design as the New Zealand blue and red ensigns but on a white background. The hoisting of its own ensign is a logical development now that the Royal New Zealand Navy mainly operates apart from the Royal Navy.