NZ Naval Board Report – 1961

EXTRACT TAKEN FROM THE REPORT TO THE NEW ZEALAND GOVERNMENT BY THE NEW ZEALAND NAVAL BOARD 1ST APRIL 1961 TO 31ST MARCH 1962.

In times of financial stress it is inevitable that expenditure, which seems to have no immediate financial benefit should come under careful scrutiny. Last year, for example, the Government allocated £73 million to the Naval defence of New Zealand. Measured in terms of roads, schools, houses, or hospitals, this is a substantial sum. It must certainly seem so to a taxpayer who considers that we are not at war and that we are far from those areas in which violence threatened during the year, and that in any event New Zealand is too small to afford forces of any real importance in an age of military giants.

For this reason the Naval Board consider it appropriate in this report to set out the reasons why New Zealand maintains a Navy and why, even in times of financial stress, it must continue to spend money on it.

Most obvious, but least important, are the tangible benefits. Last year, for example, the Navy’s hydrographic branch surveyed 1,595 square miles of our coastal waters and sold more than 7,000 charts. Good charts cut freight costs and make a real contribution to the economy. Also, during the year the Navy’s fishery protection flotilla steamed more than 30,000 miles patrolling fishing grounds and ensuring that our underwater assets remain a source of food and overseas income for the future.

Naval divers assisted national projects and other Government Departments in need of their special skills; the Naval radio station at Waiouru handled 100,628 commercial messages overseas; outside organisations sought the help of the Naval Dockyard for industrial resources available nowhere else in the Dominion. Ships carried seven tons of supplies to weather stations, supplied lighthouses, and steamed 2,354 miles on oceanographic research. And, of course, there were the occasions, notably the recovery of the schooner Kotiti, when the presence of available and disciplined forces was of benefit to the police. Clearly, if New Zealand had no Navy it would be forced to develop some similar organisation to take over a large part of its non-military duties.

However, these are secondary benefits. The main justification for the maintenance of a Navy must rest on military necessity. Everything else is subordinate to its main purpose – the maritime defence of its country.

Here it is important to understand the nature of a modern Navy. It is not a general collection of ships, men, and shore support, which can be brought together when it is needed. It is an aggregation of knowledge and skill accumulated over years and fitted to a pattern in which men and material have detailed places. It appears unchanging and yet it is constantly adjusting to new developments and demands. Above all, it is always ready. It is true to say that, to the modern Navy, the difference between war and peace is the difference only between reality and readiness.

This maintenance of a standing safeguard is recognised outside the field of national defence. Hospitals and the fire service are examples in community life, and insurance is a parallel in the commercial world. In effect, the Navy Vote, approximately one-quarter the total this country spends on defence, is the premium it pays against the danger of attack on its sea borne trade. The efficiency of this premium was shown during the Korean War when ships were on their way to the war zone 48 hours after the Government decided to support the United Nations. And, it should be noted those 48 hours covered a New Zealand weekend.

New Zealand’s history was built, and our prosperity is based, on the free use of the sea and we have enjoyed this for so long that we cannot conceive life without it. We forget that we came close to losing this in the Second World War, and we frequently overlook the fact that while the communist countries are a land mass linked by internal land communications, the Western World is connected by sea. Without free and unrestricted use of the world’s oceans we would be isolated and, for a small country such as New Zealand, isolation would be tantamount to defeat.

Even now restrictions are being placed upon us. Bases on which the Commonwealth once depended are now denied to us. One of the most striking changes in British defence policies in recent years has been the development in the Royal Navy of a mobile and self-contained striking force. This force exploits the freedom of movement on the sea and the self-sufficiency of ships. It can embark land forces and place them ashore where required; and it can provide a mobile base for air power until an airfield can be established ashore. As a “fire brigade” it is a formidable force. Whilst New Zealand cannot afford such a force completely the principle of mobility and flexibility must be followed. A glance at a map of the Pacific and a calculation of the distances involved will show both the need for fuel and the relatively small number of places at which it can be obtained. The acquisition of a small tanker, which, besides acting as the Antarctic support ship, can also supply our Naval ships at sea or in remote areas, will provide the first step towards the flexibility we need.

The awful threat of nuclear retaliation has prevented total war but post-war history has shown that, in the last 15 years, local wars have been frequent and have been the main threat to democracy. It has also shown that in local wars, through which we could lose our freedom just as surely as in a global conflict, ships and navies are essential. We can move our forces where they are needed only as long as we control the seas over which they move.

This leaves the final question. In a large and heavily armed world what value have the small navies, which countries such as New Zealand can afford? The answer is that they have a value out of all proportion to their size. They know their areas, their conditions, and their climates better than anyone, their men have the very real encouragement of fighting to defend their own countries and their equipment is usually specialised for their purpose. Finally, small countries such as New Zealand have concluded defence agreements with larger nations. These establish a pool of defence available to all. Small countries cannot expect to benefit from this pool, however, unless they contribute to it, nor can they expect the taxpayers of the larger nations to accept taxes for defence which their own citizens are unwilling to pay.

SECTION I-DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROYAL NEW ZEALAND NAVY
(i) ORGANISATION AND DEVELOPMENT
While there have been no major changes in organisation, the past year has seen the completion of the first phase of the re-equipment of the RNZN with modern ships. The arrival of HMNZS OTAGO and TARANAKI after a four-year building period has enhanced the effectiveness of the Fleet for the present. However, because of this long building time and rapid ageing of the other ships, this added effectiveness would not last for long unless the fitting of the close range guided missile “Seacat” to. HMNZS OTAGO, the RNZN is entering the missile age. This weapon replaces the 40 mm Bofars gun.

A replacement far HMNZS ENDEAVOUR is being obtained from the United States Navy in the form of a small oil tanker, and it is hoped that New Zealand’s Antarctic research effort will be supported by an RNZN ship in the coming season.

(ii) WORK STUDY
The financial situation has emphasised the growing need to make the utmost effective use of men, money, and the limited quantity of new equipment available. To this end a Work Study organisation, consisting of two teams of Naval officers and ratings, has been created in the Fleet, and now has 18 months experience. After studying a number of individual problems one team has tackled the major problem of employment of naval ratings. This has shown that there are potential savings to be made through effective management which will lead to direct savings in recruitment, training, maintenance, and refitting costs, and to increased availability af ships.

(iii) DEFENCE RESEARCH (a) Naval Research Laboratory
Work at the Naval Research Laboratory’s programme has continued during the year. A series of trials involving the research vessel RNZF A TUI, the field stations on Great Barrier Island, and Sunderland aircraft of the RNZAF has been successfully completed. The help of the RNZAF in carrying out this work is gratefully acknowledged. From the experience gained in these and previous trials it has been possible to make a number of improvements in the experimental equipment which has now been rebuilt in preparation for the forthcoming year’s trials.

A paper on the work of the laboratory was presented at the United States Navy Symposium on Underwater Research by a staff member. This paper was well received and has added to the growing reputation of the laboratory overseas.

The professional staff at the laboratory has fallen by roughly half over the past two years as members of the New Zealand Defence Scientific Corps have finished their commissions and have, in most cases, accepted appointments overseas. Two new professional staff have been appointed recently, but the work of the laboratory will be hampered until the remaining vacancies are filled.

(b) Defence Scientific Corps
The Naval Section of the Defence Scientific Corps comprises two officers both of whom are in the training phase of their commissions, one at Canterbury University and the other at London University. Three officers retired from the Corps during the year having completed their short-service commissions. No entry has been made into the Corps this year.

SECTION II-OPERATIONS

(i) HMNZS ROYALIST
HMNZS ROYALIST sailed from Singapore on 19 April to take part in Exercise “Pony Express”. This exercise, which entailed an opposed landing on North West Borneo using British and American troops and equipment, was successful and showed once more the high degree of compatibility achieved by ships of the different navies.

A cruise to Korea and Japan with units of the Royal Navy had been planned for May and June. Unfortunately, because of the unsettled political situation, the visit to Korea was cancelled but the ships were made welcome in Sasebo, Nagoya, and Yokohama. The ship sailed from Singapore on 8 July, being relieved on the Far East Station by HMNZS PUKAKI, and after calling at Darwin, Port Moresby, and Noumea arrived at Nukualofa on 31 July. His Excellency the Governor-General embarked at Nukualofa to carry out a Vice-Regal tour visiting Rarotonga, Mangaia, Mauke, Mitaro, and Atiu in the Lower Cook’s, Apia, and Pago Pago before disembarking at Suva on 17 August. The ships arrived at Auckland on 22 August for docking, self-refit, and leave.

On 23 October ROYALIST under the command of Commodore J. O’C. Ross, with HMNZS OTAGO in company sailed for exercises with the Australian Fleet. After a comprehensive series of anti-submarine and surface exercises the ships participated in the Royal Australian Navy’s fiftieth birthday celebrations in Melbourne. A combined force comprising HMNZ Ships ROYALIST, and OTAGO, HMA Ships ANZAC, VOYAGER, QUEENBOROUGH, YARRA, and PARAMATTA, HMS CAPRICE, and HM Submarines TRUMP and TAPIR, then departed for Auckland. Trans Tasman anti-submarine exercises were conducted during passage. The force arrived in Auckland on 25 November and, after participating in exercises (AUCKEX 6), maintenance and pre-refit trials were carried out before Christmas leave started on 14 December. The refit of ROYALIST started on 15 January and is due to be completed on 13 April. After trials ROYALIST will be operational on 25 May.

(ii) HMNZS OTAGO
HMNZS OTAGO visited Napier, Lyttelton, Nelson, and Wellington before returning to Auckland on 22 April for anti-submarine exercises (AUCKEX 5). These exercises, in which HMNZ Ships OTAGO and PUKAKI, HMAS QUIBERON, HM Submarine ANCHORITE, and aircraft of the RNZAF took part, were completed on 1 June. The ship then visited Wellington from 15-21 June to provide the guard for the opening of Parliament on 21 June, music being provided by the Cadet Band of the Christchurch Boys’ High School.

Self-refit took place from 26 June to 3 August, and the ship sailed from Auckland on 8 August for Brisbane to take part in Exercise “Tucker Box”. This was an anti-submarine exercise organised by the Royal Australian Navy with Royal New Zealand Navy and Royal Navy participation. It was held in the Coral Sea and consisted of a series of submarine attacks on surface forces to test convoy defences. Control of the force was exercised from an Australian Maritime Headquarters and “Tucker Box” was so successful that it will probably become an annual event.

After spending the period 8 September to 19 October on leave and maintenance in Auckland, HMNZS OTAGO accompanied HMNZS ROYALIST for combined RAN/RNZN exercises in Australian waters and attendance at the Royal Australian Navy’s fiftieth birthday celebrations. The OTAGO then returned to New Zealand with the combined RN/RAN/RNZN force carrying out anti-submarine exercises en route. The ship was employed from 27 November to 13 December on Auckland anti-submarine exercises (Auckex 6) which were followed by Christmas leave. Maintenance was carried out from 15 to 29 January before taking part in local exercises and the Waitangi Celebrations.

Commanding Officers changed on 9 February and six days later the OTAGO, under the command of Commander .J. F. McKenzie, RNZN, sailed from Auckland for Singapore and Exercise JET ’62, calling at Townsville and Darwin en route. Each year the number of ships participating in “JET” exercises increases and the exercises carried out become more complex and comprehensive. Consequently, training value increases. Ships of the Indian, Pakistan, Royal Canadian, Royal Australian, Royal New Zealand, and Royal Navies took part and New Zealand provided two frigates, OTAGO and PUKAKI. This is the first time Canadian ships have been present. Ships of the Royal Ceylon Navy who were to have taken part in “Jet ’62” was withdrawn shortly after, the unsuccessful coup in Ceylon. “Jet ’62” included antisubmarine, surface, air, and minesweeping phases, and ranged from Trincomalee to Singapore. Results were reviewed in Singapore on 16 March, and OTAGO sailed via Fremantle and Hobart to arrive Auckland on 12 April.

(iii) HMNZS TARANAKI
On completion of trials HMNZS TARANAKI “worked up” at Portland under the supervision of Flag Officer Sea Training and his staff and a high degree of efficiency in both personnel and technical fields was achieved. “Work up” was followed by advanced joint anti-submarine exercises off Londonderry before sailing on 25 August for New Zealand. HMNZS TARANAKI came west about via the Panama Canal calling en route at Halifax, Bermuda, Balboa, Long Beach, Honolulu, and Pago Pago. Opportunity was taken to exercise with the United States naval units at Long Beach and Pearl Harbour where American naval authorities offered every facility and showed great interest in the ship. HMNZS TARANAKI arrived in Port Taranaki on Saturday, 28 October. The weather was unkind, but the heavy rain apparently did not deter the large crowd who gave her an enthusiastic welcome. She arrived at Auckland on 2 November, carried out maintenance, and gave leave before joining in the last two weeks of Auckland anti-submarine exercises (Auckex 6). After Christmas leave she took part in the Waitangi celebrations, visited Napier and Wellington in February, then, with training classes embarked, visited Jervis Bay and Sydney from 15 to 31 March to carry out anti-submarine training with ships of the RAN. The period from 3 to 30 April will be spent in Auckland on maintenance and leave before sailing for Singapore to relieve PUKAKI as New Zealand’s contribution to’ the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve.

(iv) HMNZS PUKAKI
HMNZS PUKAKI completed refit and re-commissioned on 12 April. She had started shaking down when unrest at Ocean Island was reported and the same day as the reports were received she was on her way to the area with additional personnel embarked to render any assistance necessary. However, such assistance was not required and after spending a week at Tarawa PUKAKI arrived back in Auckland on 8 May. Participation in “Auckex 5” was followed by a fortnight’s weapon training in Australia and, after calling at Cairns en route, she arrived at Singapore an 11 July as New Zealand’s contribution to the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve.

As a unit of the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve she carried out training with the Royal Malayan Naval Volunteer Reserve around the Malayan coast, took part in large scale tactical exercises in November, then visited Japan from 27 December to 20 January; ports visited being Beppu, Yokosuka, and Kobe. Maintenance and docking, carried out 26 January to 26 February at Singapore, were followed by participation in JET ’62 as one of the two frigates provided by New Zealand. Visits to Hang Kang and Batti Malv (in the Nicobars) precede joining in the SEATO maritime exercise “Sea Devil” which takes place in April.

(v) HMNZS ROTOITI
Having been relieved on the Far East Station by HMNZS PUKAKI, HMNZS ROTOITI remained in Auckland until 29 May on leave. With a reduced complement she then carried out training cruises in the Auckland/Hauraki Gulf area for young Tamaki ratings and members of the RNZNVR. In July her training cruises were extended for the benefit of RNZNVR Divisions in other centres and during July and August she visited Gisborne, Wellington, Picton, Nelson, and Lyttelton.

In response to a request from the Commander, Naval Support Force, Antarctica, far a weather reporting ship to work with USS VANCE, the ROTOITI was fitted with the necessary equipment and meteorological courses were given to officers and ratings. Three periods of 18 to 20 days were spent an these duties between October and February and, in addition, she carried out magnetometer towing off the south-east coast and Foveaux Strait, bottom sampling and oceanography, transfer of stares and personnel at Campbell Island en route to and from station and completed RNZNVR training. The station for the weather reporting ship is about 860 miles south of Dunedin, 60 degrees south, 170 degrees east. Rear Admiral Tyree commended the ROTOITI’s contribution to’ “Deep Freeze”.

Weather duties completed she once more went south far oceanography on the Macquarie Ridge before returning to Auckland on 7 March to undergo maintenance and thence to carry on with junior ratings training.

(vi) HMNZS LACHLAN
For the greater part of the period under review HMNZS LACHLAN has been undergoing an extensive refit. Since January 1962 the ship has been operational and engaged in surveys off Whangarei for the production of a chart of the approaches to that port.

Survey teams from LACHLAN completed surveys in Auckland Harbour and Whangarei with detached boat parties while the ship was under refit. A similar team surveyed the anchorage at Aitutaki in the Cook Islands being transported, with its 29 ft surveying motorboat, by the New Zealand Government M.V. Moana Roa.

(vii) HMNZ SURVEYING MOTOR LAUNCHES TAKAPU AND TARAPUNGA
Both vessels operated as a unit under the direction of the Senior Officer, Surveying Motor Launches, who is a Charge Surveyor. This successful arrangement has led to the completion of a survey of the whole of Manukau Harbour and its approaches, the bars at Raglan and Kawhia, and an extensive area in the approaches to Whangarei.

A number of reported shoals and charting discrepancies have also been investigated and either confirmed or disproved by the Motor Launch Unit.

(viii) HMNZS ENDEAVOUR
HMNZS ENDEAVOUR was declared unfit for further Antarctic work and was de-stored, paid off, and made ready for disposal by 1 December. After return from the Antarctic ENDEAVOUR was given a refit which was completed on 3 June. From 11 June to 13 July she carried out ammunition dumping from Auckland, Wellington, and Lyttelton for the three Services; this was followed by a visit to Raoul Island transporting personnel, stores, and equipment for Civil Aviation Administration. On return ENDEAVOUR transported armament stores from Cass Bay Armament Depot, which was about to close down, to Auckland and completed this work by 20 September. From 23 September to 13 October she was used for deep diving training in the Hauraki Gulf; carried out one more trip to Raoul Island with personnel, stores, and equipment for Civil Aviation Administration, then visited Bluff and Lyttelton before returning to Auckland on 7 November to payoff and prepare for disposal.

(ix) FISHERY PROTECTION SQUADRON
The Fishery Protection Squadron consisting of HMNZ Ships PAEA, MAKO, and MANGA has, in addition to patrols in the Auckland area, transported personnel for other Government Departments; taken part in the Waitangi celebrations (one launch acting as the Governor-General’s barge), carried out patrols around the South Island, and assisted the RNZNVR annual exercise “Claymore”.

Recently under the control of a Commander, RNZN, all boats were used in minor tactical exercises to give junior officers experience in fleet work. HMNZ Ships PAEA and MAKO carried out the patrol in southern waters which lasted from 27 August to 7 November and which extended from Auckland down the east and south coasts of New Zealand and up the west to Milford Sound.

(x) RNZFA TUI
The RNZFA TUI has continued in the role of research vessel attached to the Naval Research Laboratory in Auckland. A major refit of the vessel was completed in December.

(xi) RNZNVR MOTOR LAUNCHES
The concentration of RNZNVR motor launches for two consecutive weeks’ exercises over the Christmas/New Year holiday is now an annual event and has been given the name “Claymore”. Augmented by motor launches of the Fishery Protection Squadron, exercises were carried out between Wellington and Picton and in the Marlborough Sounds. The Commodore, Auckland, was at sea in one of the Fishery launches as an observer, and the series culminated with Chief of the Naval Staff exercising the squadron from Wellington to Picton.

(xii) HYDROGRAPHIC SERVICE
During the year ended 31 March 1962 a new chart of the coastal waters off Tauranga has been published, and charts of Oamaru Harbour and Manukau Harbour have been progressed. Preparatory work has been done towards charting the coastal waters off Whangarei to provide for the safe navigation of deep draught tankers when the oil refinery at Marsden Point begins operations. Eight charts have been reprinted incorporating latest amendments. “Notices to Mariners” originated numbered 113.

During 1961 charts sold to the public totalled 7,303 (an increase of 30 per cent) and revenue amounted to £2,758. Service issues of charts were 1,153. The shortage of trained draughting staff has again restricted the output of new charts during the past year.

SECTION Ill-NAVAL VISITS TO NEW ZEALAND

(i) VISITS OF DISTINGUISHED PERSONS
In December Rear-Admiral Martinet, the Commander-in-Chief, French Maritime Forces in the Pacific, visited New Zealand wearing his flag on board the French sloop FRANCIS GARNIER. Discussions were held with the Naval Board and the Chiefs of Staff, and the Admiral took the opportunity of seeing a good deal of the country before returning to his headquarters at Noumea. Rear-Admiral Martinet was replaced as Commander-in-Chief by Rear Admiral De Scitivaux de Greische on 12 March 1962.

The First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir Casper John, visited New Zealand in February for discussions on defence problems with the New Zealand Government and the Chiefs of Staff. The First Sea Lord was able, among other things, to explain fully the background to recent changes in the United Kingdom defence policy with particular regard to problems in the Far East. Sir Casper and Lady John attended the Waitangi ceremony before returning to the United Kingdom.

(u) COMMONWEALTH NAVIES
In addition to the units of Commonwealth navies previously mentioned, the Aircraft Carrier HMAS MELBOURNE and the Battle class destroyer HMAS ANZAC visited Auckland and Wellington during August/September in the course of an operational visit to New Zealand. The MELBOURNE was flying the flag of Rear-Admiral W. H. Harrington, C.B.E., D.S.C., RA.N., the Flag Officer Commanding HM Australian Fleet. Rear Admiral Harrington has recently been promoted to Vice Admiral as Chief of Naval Staff.

(iii) UNITS OF OTHER NAVIES
Considerable interest was aroused by the visit in June of the Chilean Naval Training Ship ESMERALDA to Wellington and Auckland in the course of a cruise of the Pacific. Numerous invitations were sent to the Commanding Officer to have the ship visit other ports in New Zealand, but these had to be regretfully declined.

The Argentine training cruiser LA ARGENTINA paid an official visit to Wellington in October in the course of a round the world training cruise. The visit was planned as a goodwill tour and to express the friendly relations and cooperation between the Government and people of Argentina and the Government and people of New Zealand.

The French sloop the FRANCIS GARNIER, wearing the flag of Rear Admiral Martinet, the Commander-in-Chief, French Maritime Forces in the Pacific, visited Auckland, Wellington, Bluff, and Milford Sound in December 1961.

United States ship’s involved in operation “Deep Freeze” have continued to use Lyttelton as their main port of call and also visited Dunedin, Wellington, and Auckland for replenishment of stores, repairs, and recreation.

SECTION IV-PERSONNEL
(i) OFFICERS
Although the officer strength of the Navy has been maintained at the same level as last year there is an acute shortage of Medical Officers, and there has been a disappointing shortfall in the numbers of boys recruited as officer cadets. To alleviate the lack of recruitment in the seaman and supply and secretariat specialisations, a limited number of short-service commissions on the Supplementary List, RNZN, are being offered.

A noteworthy feature of the year under review has been the decision of the RNZN, in common with the other navies of the Commonwealth, to amalgamate officers of the marine engineering and electrical specialisation with a reallocation of duties within the specialisation.

Much of the modern equipment installed, and to be installed, in our ships combines electrical and mechanical techniques and therefore needs to be treated as an entity under the control of one engineer officer. In most classes of ships the engineering task is too varied and widespread for anyone officer to have effective technical control, but the task divides naturally into self-contained functional fields; marine engineering, and weapon and radio engineering. In future the Marine Engineering Department in a ship will assume responsibility for the hull, propulsion, electric power generation and distribution, and for all common services. The Weapon and Radio Engineering Department in a ship will assume the responsibilities for maintenance of all weapons and radio equipment at present divided between electrical officers and the Ordnance section of the marine engineering officers.

(ii) RATINGS
At 31 March 1962 the total strength of male ratings was 2,465 of whom 311 were under preliminary training in New Zealand and the United Kingdom leaving 2,154 trained men to man the Fleet. Recruiting has shown an upward trend compared with the same period last year. The acquisition of modem frigates is regarded as supplying one of the incentives to this revival of interest in the Service.

There are five RN ratings on loan to the RNZN. These men are performing duties in capacities that cannot be met from RNZN sources. The discharge by purchase scheme introduced last year is functioning satisfactorily. During the period under review 16 men have been granted their discharge.

During the year a new branch – the General Duties Branch – was formed. This branch was introduced to provide a source of unskilled labour to undertake domestic duties in shore establishments thereby freeing active service ratings for full employment within their own specialist fields. Recruiting for this branch has exceeded expectations and assisted considerably in manning the Fleet.

(iii) WOMEN’S ROYAL NEW ZEALAND NAVAL SERVICE
The WRNZNS complement at 31 March 1962 totalled nine officers and 69 ratings. Although the officer complement is up to strength the number of ratings is below requirements, and has shown a decrease on last year. Mainly because of a reduction in the entry age to 17 1/2 years recruiting has shown a slight improvement. However, once again this year the total entry did not offset the total discharges and shortages exist in most categories.

The standard of discipline and the morale of the Service have remained at a high level.

(iv) RECRUITING
The total number of new entries for the year ending 31 March 1962 was 382, which included 11 ex RN personnel recruited in the United Kingdom and three ratings transferred from the RN on compassionate grounds. This represented an increase of 139 on the previous year’s figures. Sixteen artificer apprentices were entered during the year compared with nine during the previous year. The entry of 382 was the highest since 1952, a most encouraging result.

(v) HONOURS AND AWARDS
The following honours and awards to Royal New Zealand Navy and Royal New Zealand Naval Volunteer Reserve personnel were made during the year:
ROYAL NEW ZEALAND NAVY
Ordinary Commander of the Military Division of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
Rear Admiral Peter Phipps, D.S.C. AND BAR, V.R.D.
Ordinary Officer of the Military Division of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
Commander Owen Rowland James Skyrme, RNZN.
Ordilnary Member of the Military Division of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
Engineer Lieutenant Commander George Mitchell, RNZN.
Lieutenant Commander Douglas Gerald Bamfield, RNZN.
British Empire Medal (Military Division)
Chief Petty Officer Writer Reginald Owen Smythe.
Chief Petty Officer Edward Charles Frederick Barnes.
Chief Petty Officer Henry Cyril Melville Brock.
Chief Petty Officer William Montgomery Cedric Gibbs.
Stores Chief Petty Officer Herbert Maurice Douglas Pond.
Master at Arms Morris Edwin Bennett.
Chief Engine Room Artificer Richard Arnold Agnew.
Chief Ordnance Artificer John Charles Tyler.

ROYAL NEW ZEALAND NAVAL VOLUNTEER RESERVE To be an Ordinary Officer of the Military Division of the Most Excellent
Order of the British Empire
Commander Cyril Howard Hilliard, V.R.D., RNZNVR.

(vi) HEALTH
The general health of the Royal New Zealand Navy has remained satisfactory throughout the year and although there was an increase in the total number of cases reporting sick, there was a fall in the total days sickness.

Two deaths are recorded – a member of the WRNZNS being drowned whilst on leave and a male rating killed in a motorcycle accident.

The rejection rate for male recruits was the lowest for many years. Failure to reach the minimum Naval visual standard, asthma, and chronic skin diseases were the principal causes for rejection. The rejection rate for WRNZNS was approximately the same as last year.

Civilian visiting staff continues to be of considerable value and it is doubtful whether the RNZN Hospital could have met its commitments without their help. The manning of the Dental Branch remains reasonably satisfactory.

During the year the RNZN Hospital extended its surgical facilities to the RNZAF and Army to assist with the delays occasioned by the inability of civilian hospitals to admit non-urgent Service personnel.

Equipment on the whole is satisfactory, although a steady replacement of items now becoming obsolete after over 20 years service is required.

(vii) EDUCATION
During the year a critical survey was made of the requirement for academic instruction in the training of naval ratings. Previously it was considered that as much formal school instruction as possible should be given. However, there is now some doubt about the need for instruction, which is not directly linked to specific tasks. In many cases practical training has been found to be completely adequate, and as a result two purely formal school examinations have been discontinued, allowing a possible saving of at least three weeks in new entry training. Similar thought is also being given to more advanced technical courses in which a distinction has frequently existed between practical and theoretical instruction.

Applications for correspondence and study courses have been slightly fewer than on previous years, but the pattern of study undertaken remains the same. The courses are used to prepare for a civilian qualification, and no interest is shown if the course is not firmly tied to practical matters.

(viii) HOUSING AND SHORE ACCOMMODATION
During 1961, 18 houses were erected on the Ocean View Estate, Takapuna. This now completes the original housing programme of 403 units. There are now nine sections remaining on this estate and plans are being prepared for eight houses to be built thereon. The remaining section is being investigated for the erection of a further house.

During 1961, 42 sections of land at Northcote were purchased and it is proposed to build 50 housing units there during the next three years. Building will commence when the local power board connects this area with electric power.

There are no houses under construction at present, but it is proposed to build a total of 14 houses in the Auckland area in the forthcoming financial year.

To ensure greater security of the Naval Base at Devonport, four houses in Calliope Road overlooking the Base were purchased during the year. These are being used as housing accommodation.

A start has been made on the construction of the new stores and accommodation block in HMNZS PHILOMEL. The site has been cleared and the old stores building have been removed to the No. 2 tank site.

During the year some improvements have been made to the existing accommodation in HMNZS PHILOMEL. The possibility of resiting HMNZS TAMAKI is being examined. Consideration is also being given to the site for the erection of the new establishment at HMNZS IRIRANGI, the Naval W/T Station at Waiouru.

(ix) CEREMONIAL
HMNZS OTAGO visited Wellington from 15 June to 21 June 1961 to provide the guard for the opening of Parliament. This year the Treaty of Waitangi ceremony was attended by HMNZ Ships OTAGO, TARANAKI, LACHLAN, TAKAPU, TARAPUNGA, PAEA, MANGA, and MAKO and HMAS GASCOYNE.

SECTION V-TRAINING
(i) WITHIN NEW ZEALAND
A total of 412 ratings received their initial disciplinary and technical training in HMNZS TAMAKI and HMNZS PHILOMEL during the year. Forty-five officers and 848 ratings underwent advanced training in HMNZS PHILOMEL. Training has been generally satisfactory but shortages of equipment have restricted the flexibility of some higher technical courses and resulted in improvisation to arrive at acceptable standards.

During the year time spent by boy entries in the Initial Training Establishment, HMNZS TAMAKI has been reduced from three to two terms. This is in accordance with Naval Board policy to reduce shore training to essentials only. Newly entered seaman ratings who would normally have undergone second term training in HMNZS TAMAKI have, during the year, been sent to HMNZS ROTOITI to receive this instruction at sea. This form of training has proved popular and is in conformity with Naval Board policy to streamline new entry training.

During December 1961 a successful course was held in Navy Office for Indonesian students in New Zealand under the auspices of the Colombo Plan. The course was intended to introduce the students to English terms used in the Service and was received by them with enthusiasm and interest.

(ii) OVERSEAS TRAINING
The training of officer cadets and advanced courses for some officers has continued to be undertaken in Australia and the United Kingdom. Certain higher technical training for ratings has also been undertaken in Australia and the United Kingdom.

Arrangements were negotiated with Admiralty during the year for Royal New Zealand Navy personnel proceeding to the United Kingdom for training to travel from Singapore to the United Kingdom and return by Royal Navy charter aircraft. These facilities, which are used in conjunction with RNZAF aircraft between New Zealand and Singapore, have led to a considerable saving in time and expenditure on overseas training.

(iii) ARTIFICER APPRENTICES TRAINING
At 31 March 1962, 63 artificer apprentices were under training. Of these 42 were in RN establishments and 21 in HMNZS PHILOMEL.

SECTION VI-NON-REGULAR RESERVES
(i) RESERVES
The strength of the reserves at 31 March 1962 totalled 697 officers and 3,376 ratings, including 119 officers and 362 ratings of the RNZNVR and 11 merchant navy officers serving with the RNZNR.

The approved strength of the RNZNVR is 600 ratings, and at present 362 ratings are under training in the four divisions. Recruiting has until recently been disappointing, but there are now signs of an improvement. The response to an intensive recruiting drive by all divisions has been encouraging.

Sea training was carried out in HMNZ Ships ROYALIST, OTAGO, TARANAKI, ROTOITI, and ENDEAVOUR. In addition, two officers and 39 ratings carried out extended sea training in HMNZ ships, in most cases as part complement.

The inactive reserves number 567 officers and 3,014 ratings. Included in these figures are 1,493 members of the Royal New Zealand Fleet Reserve who in most cases have a reserve liability until they reach the age of 40 years.

(ii) SEA CADET CORPS
The strength of the Sea Cadet Corps at 31 March 1962 totalled 71 officers and 1,372 cadets, consisting of 27 officers and 733 cadets from the closed units, 44 officers and 639 cadets from the Navy League Sea Cadets.

Training continues to be carried out at a satisfactory level, and 30 cadets undertook sea training in HMNZS ROTOITI. Two Sea Cadet camps held at HMNZS TAMAKI and one at Ripa Island were attended by 360 cadets and again proved highly successful. A Sea Cadet advancement course for senior cadets held in HMNZS TAMAKI was attended by 40 cadets, and 10 specially selected cadets attended a physical training and leadership course in HMNZS PHILOMEL.

The policy of extending the Sea Cadet Corps was progressed by establishing open and closed units at Nelson and Tauranga and an open unit at Wanganui.

(iii) NAVAL RELATIONS OFFICERS
These gentlemen, of whom there are 25 throughout New Zealand, continue to provide valuable assistance in an honorary capacity in welfare work, recruiting, and ship visiting. A conference was held in Navy Office during September with the purpose of bringing Naval Relations Officers up to date with modern naval trends and policy.

SECTION VII-COMMUNICATIONS
(i) SHORE COMMUNICATIONS
The major modernisation of HMNZS IRIRANGI, the Naval Wireless Station at Waiouru, has progressed throughout the year with completion of the installation of new transmitters and the construction of a transmitter aerial exchange. All aerials have also been renewed. Final completion of a stand-by power plant for use during power cuts is expected shortly, and remote keying and reception lines from the Naval Communications Centre, Wellington, will be installed by means of a VHF radio link. IRIRANGI continues to play its part as the New Zealand station in the Commonwealth World Wide Naval network and has in the past year handled free of charge 100,628 commercial messages for Commonwealth merchant shipping, together with a comparable number of official Naval messages.

(ii) SHIPBORNE COMMUNICATIONS
The arrival on the New Zealand station of HMNZ Ships OTAGO and TARANAKI with their modern communication equipment has provided the RNZN with ships fully capable of being incorporated into a modern force of warships. These ships, using the latest techniques, are better able to fulfil any kind of operational requirement. Limited modernisation of the communication equipments of other ships is progressing.

(iii) EXERCISE COMMUNICATIONS
Frequent communication exercises, necessary to ensure constant efficiency, have been carried out between ships, ships and shore stations, and ships and aircraft. An exercise to locate an imaginary sunken submarine, involving all available ships putting to sea and carrying out a search of the area, enabled the whole Naval communication organisation to be thoroughly tested. From the lessons learned in this exercise necessary alterations to methods and procedures have become apparent and are being made.

SECTION VIII-HMNZ DOCKYARD
(i) GENERAL
The dockyard refitting commitments continue to increase and the programme throughout the past year has taxed the dockyard capacity. The accent has been on modernisation work. The refit and modernisation of Surveying Frigate HMNZS LACHLAN over a period of eight months, which was the most extensive ever to be undertaken on a frigate in HMNZ Dockyard, and the refits of HMNZS ROYALIST and RNZF A TUI, constituted the main effort.

The Royal Navy Surveying Ship HMS COOK was docked for routine work in December. The allocation of Calliope Dock for Naval Ships made by the Central Docking Committee have been satisfactory, and the Auckland Harbour Board has given full cooperation with regard to special requirements needed for docking the OTAGO class frigates.

(ii) REFITS
(a) M ajar Vessels
(1) HMNZS ROYALIST was given a biennial refit in which all defects were made good and many items of machinery and equipment were overhauled, including the main armament directors.
(2) HMNZS LACHLAN was given a major refit and modernisation to increase its operational efficiency. The modernisation included improvements to accommodation, surveying equipment, and communications equipment. In addition, new echo sounding equipment, boats and boat davits, and hull improvements were also incorporated. The ratings accommodation now compares favourably with that in HMNZ Ships OTAGO and TARANAKI.
(3) HMNZ Ships ROTOITI and HAWEA were both given short refits for routine work. Special equipment was fitted to ROTOITI for her weather reporting duties.
(4) HMNZS OT AGO was docked for routine work. Emergency repairs were carried out later to both HMNZ Ships OTAGO and TARANAKI.

(b) Minor Vessels
(1) RNZFA TUI had the most extensive refit since being employed as the Naval Research Vessel. Improvements were made to accommodation and included new operations room, communications office, and laboratory.
(2) HMNZ Ships KIWI, KIAMA, STAWELL, and ECHUCA were docked for routine painting.
(3) The Fishery Protection Launches MAKO, PAEA, and MANGA, and the survey motor launches TAKAPU and TARAPUNGA were slipped for routine refits.
(4) The RNZNVR launch, NGAPONA, was given a routine slipping, and OLPHERT underwent a major refit which included provision of improved equipment for training use.
(c) Auxiliary Craft
A further launch on the TAMAKI service was given a major overhaul and strengthening to prolong its life. The stores carrier LANDER requires a similar major refit. The HAURAKI, which is employed on lighthouse servicing for the Marine Department, is now 57 years’ old and due for replacement.

(iii) SHIPS IN RESERVE
There are now seven ships in reserve, categorised as follows:

(a) Operational Reserve
(i) A/ frigate HMNZS HAWEA.
(ii) Ocean minesweeper HMNZS KIAMA.
(iii) Ocean minesweeper HMNZS INVERELL.
(b) Supplementary Reserve
(i) Ocean minesweeper HMNZS ECHUCA.
(ii) Ocean minesweeper HMNZS STAWELL.
(iii) A/ and minesweeping trawler HMNZS KIWI.

(c) Extended Reserve
(i) A/S frigate HMNZS KANIERE. HMNZS KANIERE is being used as an alongside training ship for engineering mechanics.

(iv) DISPOSALS
During the year two Loch Class frigates, TUTIRA and TAUPO, were declared surplus to the Government Stores Board for disposal. The Stores Board advertised the ships for sale throughout the world and the highest tender received and accepted was from Hong Kong. Both ships were towed to Hong Kong by a Philippine tug.

The cruiser BLACK PRINCE, which had been on loan to the Royal New Zealand Navy for 15 years and in reserve for the last six years, was returned to Admiralty control at the beginning of the financial year. Admiralty decided to sell the ship and it was sold to a Japanese firm for breaking up. It has been towed away.

HMNZS ENDEAVOUR having come to the end of her useful life was offered for sale by the Government Stores Board. When first offered ENDEAVOUR was in full commission and it was hoped to sell her as a sea-going unit. However, the offers received were so low that it was decided not to accept the highest tender. The ship will now be offered for sale either as a sea-going unit or in part thereof.

(v) MISCELLANEOUS WORK
Work has been undertaken for other Government Departments and private firms when facilities have not been available elsewhere in New Zealand.

(vi) NAVAL STORES ORGANISATION
The extensive refits of HMNZ Ships PUKAKI and LACHLAN, together with the receipt of new types of stores for the new Otago Class frigates, increased the workload over the past year. The changeover to mechanised accounting is now nearly complete and the advantages of this system are beginning to be felt.

During the past two years 112,000 lb of butter, 30,700 lb of cheese, and 32,700 lb of meat have been purchased by Admiralty and shipped to Singapore for use by units of the Royal Navy and Commonwealth navies serving on the Far East Station. Navy Office acts as the Admiralty agent for these transactions.

(vii) NAVAL ARMAMENT DEPOT
The Depot at Cass Bay, Lyttelton, has been closed down and its stores transferred to Kauri Point and the newly commissioned depot at Whangaparaoa.

Test equipment for maintenance of electric torpedoes is being installed at Kauri Point, and existing laboratories are being converted for the assembly and checking of “Seacat” missiles.

(viii) DOCKYARD MAINTENANCE
Replacement of over-age underground cables is being progressed, also oil fuel pipes, compressed air and other services in the Dockyard.

A contract was placed with the Auckland Harbour Board (early in 1962) for dredging Calliope Basin this being the first time the basin has been dredged for a very long time.

A contract has been let for the repair, over the next three years, of the concrete section of Calliope Wharf. The complete rebuilding of the wooden section of Calliope Wharf will be necessary in the near future.

SECTION IX-DEPARTMENTAL ADMINISTRATION

(i) PUBLIC SERVICE STAFF
The shortage of junior administrative and clerical staff still prevails in the Department, and the only cadets recruited during the year were three female cadets. The overall staffing position has improved slightly in relation to last year, but the fact remains that there are insufficient civilian staff of the required calibre to fill all vacancies. Applicants for lower grade vacancies were largely in the older age group. It is small consolation to know that this situation is not peculiar to Navy Department.

Internal staff training was adequate and followed a planned pattern, courses being conducted in induction, job instruction, and supervision. The induction course for apprentices in Auckland included a comprehensive tour of dockyard installations and afforded these youths an opportunity to appreciate the importance of their position in the departmental organisation.

(ii) DOCKYARD WORKMEN
The arrival of the Otago Class frigates with their complex equipment and sophisticated missiles has meant that dockyard tradesmen and technicians have had to cope with problems not hitherto encountered and it is encouraging to see how well new techniques have been assimilated. However, it is still essential that overseas training be continued to allow personnel to become expert in the new equipment, which is continually being evolved. The recruiting campaign for skilled tradesmen conducted in the United Kingdom was satisfactory. The number of married tradesmen that could be accepted has been limited, however, by the amount of guaranteed housing available.

(iii) DOCKYARD APPRENTICES
This year there are 143 apprentices undergoing training in the dockyard. It is a continuing source of gratification to know that apprentices trained in our establishments are considered to be amongst the most competent tradesmen who qualify in this country.

It is gratifying also to note that 48 apprentices passed Trade Certification Examinations during the year under review and, in addition, 31 passes were gained by dockyard apprentices in Certificate of Engineering subjects.

CONSTITUTION AND MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL BOARD
(a) Constitution -The New Zealand Naval Board is constituted under the Navy Act 1954.
(b) Members as at 31 March 1962
Hon. Dean J. Eyre, M.P., Minister of Defence (Chairman).
Rear Admiral Peter Phipps, C.B.E., D.S.C., AND BAR, V.R.D. (First Naval Member).
Commodore L. S. Stanners, O.B.E. (Second Naval Member)
Commodore E. A. G. Whittle, C.B.E. (Third Naval Member)
D. A. Wraight, Esq. (Navy Secretary and Member)