NZ Naval Board Report – 1960

EXTRACT TAKEN FROM THE REPORT TO THE NEW ZEALAND GOVERNMENT BY THE NEW ZEALAND NAVAL BOARD 1ST APRIL 1960 TO 31ST MARCH 1961.

In an age of men in space, missiles, nuclear weapons, and nuclear submarines, many people must wonder why nations continue to develop what are now known as “conventional forces” – ships with guns and anti-submarine weapons, the traditional Corps of the Army, and aircraft with standard guns and bombs. The Naval Board feels that it is appropriate in this report to restate the belief that these forces are today, and for the foreseeable future will continue to be, the only effective contribution New Zealand can make to its own defence.

Critics of conventional forces base their argument primarily on the belief that the initial exchange of nuclear weapons in the future war would cause such devastation that the combatants would be unable to conduct further operations. This overlooks two factors. The first is that it is becoming increasingly unlikely that anyone will initiate nuclear war because of the danger of immediate and dreadful retaliation. The second is that it seems certain that, given adequate precautions, a large proportion of the population would, in fact, survive. However, if total nuclear war is becoming less likely the possibility of limited wars or emergencies is not. The history of the last 10 to 15 years records a steady succession of them. Korea, Suez, Indo-China, Algeria, and the Congo are all examples of the use of conventional forces in situations, which prohibited the employment of nuclear weapons.

If we accept the value of conventional forces it remains to restate the role of the Navy. The countries of the Western World are linked by oceans upon which they depend for their trade and security. Seventy-eight percent of the earth’s surface is covered by water and we need unrestricted use of it in peace and war if we are to survive. It is the Navy’s task to protect and maintain these sea communications. Beyond this, a ship is a mobile force, self contained and able to move to a trouble area, to operate there alone, or to transport, support, and supply the Army and the Air Force.

It is evident that the forces, which could be ranged against the Western Powers, regard operations at sea as of great importance. In the Pacific Ocean alone the communist navies operate more than twice as many submarines today as Germany possessed at the outbreak of World War II The submarine is primarily an offensive weapon and countries such as New Zealand, which are dependent on long lines of sea communications, must undertake some measure of protection on their own account.

Time and the restricted capacity of’ a small country have in New Zealand added other responsibilities to the Navy’s primary task of maritime defence. Today the Navy surveys the coastline in New Zealand and the Pacific, supplies remote islands and services lighthouses, supplies and supports our Antarctic activities, conducts research, and protects and patrols fishing grounds. This diversity, together with the considerable time it takes to build and commission a warship, is the reason why the development of a modern navy is a long-term and continuing project.

SECTION I-DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROYAL NEW ZEALAND NAVY
(i) ORGANISATION AND DEVELOPMENT
The re-equipment programme of the Royal New Zealand Navy aims to provide modern general-purpose frigates and a mine-clearance force. This programme has already started with the arrival in January of HMNZS OTAGO, and HMNZS TARANAKI is due to arrive in New Zealand later this year. While these two ships will enhance the effectiveness of the Fleet at present, the future is not assured. ROYALIST and the four remaining Loch class frigates reach the end of their effective lives by 1965-66. Although containing a modern gunnery system, the ROYALIST has a hull and machinery, which are already 20 years old. As it takes from four to five years to build and deliver a modern warship further replacements must be ordered now if the Navy is to be able to meet its share of New Zealand’s defence commitments, both overseas and at home, in 1966, and be of a minimum shape and size upon which an effective service can be built up in cast; of war or emergency.

During the past year the RNZN contribution to the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve has been HMNZS ROTOITI, which was relieved by HMNZS ROYALIST in February. Both ships have taken part in SEATO, Commonwealth, and Royal Navy exercises, as well as showing the New Zealand flag as far a field as Japan, Thailand, India, and Pakistan.

HMNZS ENDEAVOUR made her last trip to the Antarctic in support of New Zealand’s Antarctic research effort in December 1960. She has been withdrawn from that service because her wooden hull has reached a stage at which, without an extremely costly survey and refit, it would be unsafe to operate her in ice waters. Accordingly, consideration is being given to the replacement of this ship.

The work of the Surveying Service has continued with the production of new charts. The survey ship HMNZS LACHLAN is another ship, which is coming to the end of her effective life, and consideration will have to be given soon to providing a replacement.

Basic training for all ratings continues to be carried out in HMNZS TAMAKI, on Motuihe Island in the Hauraki Gulf. TAMAKI is generally below modern standards of habitability and presents a continuous and costly maintenance and renovation problem. It was virtually condemned as far back as 1947 and active measures will have to be taken in the near future to provide an alternative modern training establishment.

To reduce the expenditure of overseas funds it is now the policy of the Naval Board to undertake the majority of advance training in New Zealand at HMNZS PHILOMEL. The requirement has arisen, therefore, for proper buildings, equipment, and training aids. The construction of a new accommodation block in PHILOMEL to provide modem accommodation, including bunk sleeping, up to inter-service standards, is, therefore, an urgent requirement.

The acquisition of the Otago class frigates OTAGO and TARANAKI has brought with it the need to modernise shore maintenance equipment facilities. Without these the operational availability of the ships will unduly suffer. The provision of a new combined workshop and tool room in HMNZ Dockyard, Auckland, is therefore an essential requirement.

(ii) DEFENCE RESEARCH
(a) Naval Research Laboratory
The first phase of the five-year project being undertaken by the Naval Research Laboratory has now been completed and the next phase, utilising all sections of the laboratory, RNZFA TUl, and the field station, has commenced.

The completion of the laboratory extension has resulted in a marked increase in the volume and progress of laboratory work.

The laboratory derived considerable benefit from the visit of the Deputy Director to the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, and Australia. Another laboratory scientist visited the United States in connection with the United States Navy Symposium on under water research. This close liaison is essential to the welfare of the laboratory and it is pleasing to be able to state that the underwater research work carried out in New Zealand is fully recognised overseas.

(b) Defence Scientific Corps
The naval section of the Defence Scientific Corps comprises five officers, three of whom, together with two from the Army section of the Corps, are employed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The remaining two Corps officers are undergoing the training phase of their commissions, one at Canterbury University College and one at London University. The latter was the only entry into the naval section of the Defence Scientific Corps during the year. Three officers retired from .the Corps during the year having completed their short-service commissions.

SECTION II-OPERATIONS

(i) HMNZSROYALIST
>From May to September 1960 HMNZS ROYALIST underwent a major refit in HMNZ Dockyard at Devonport, the first to be undertaken on such a scale since the ship completed modernisation in 1956. In September the ship re-commissioned under the command of Captain H. D. Stevenson, RAN, and after successfully completing trials the new ship’s company proceeded to work themselves up to a peak of efficiency in an intensive period of drills and evolutions. The first half of this programme was carried out in the Auckland area, and this was followed by a further period of exercises at Jervis Bay, during which the ship visited Sydney. On return to Auckland Christmas leave was given, and on 23 January 1961 the ship again sailed for Australian waters, this time en route for a six months tour of duty on the Far East Station as New Zealand’s contribution to the naval element of the Commonwealth Strategic Reserve. Her first assignment was to participate, with ships of the Royal Australian Navy, the Royal Ceylon Navy, the Royal Navy, and the Indian and Pakistan Navies, in the most ambitious combined exercise yet held in this annual series, known by the code name “JET ’61”. This was followed by highly successful flag showing visits to Madras in India, and Chittagong in Pakistan, on conclusion of which the ship arrived in Singapore on 27 March 1961.

(ii) HMNZS OTAGO
HMNZS OTAGO was commissioned at Southampton on 21 June 1960. The occasion aroused unprecedented interest in the Province of Otago, where, to mark their adoption of the ship, almost every local body sent messages of congratulation together with trophies or mementoes appropriate to the occasion, or gifts of money which were used to swell a fund devoted to providing sports gear and amenities for the ship’s company. On completion of trials the ship “worked up” at Portland under the supervision of the Flag Officer Sea Training and his staff, where a high degree of efficiency in both the personnel and technical fields was attained.

In early August the very intensive programme was broken by a visit to St. Peter Port, Guernsey followed by a brief but pleasant visit to Copenhagen. Neither of these ports had hitherto been visited by New Zealand warships.

The Portland phase was followed by a further period at Londonderry, where the ship took part, with other modern frigates of the Royal Navy and aircraft of the Royal Air Force, in advanced exercises with submarines (including a nuclear submarine). The ship’s final days in the United Kingdom were spent at London, where the ship’s company participated in a “Commonwealth week” and were honoured by a visit from Her Royal Highness the Princess Margaret, accompanied by her husband Mr Antony Armstrong Jones, to see the ship she had launched almost two years previously.

Passage to New Zealand was made via the Suez Canal, calling at Gibraltar, Malta, Aden, and Colombo. Christmas was spent at Singapore and the ship then proceeded via Fremantle and Melbourne, to arrive at the Port of Otago on 19 January 1961. Once again, their name-ship inspired great enthusiasm amongst the people of the province, and parties from the ship, including the Captain and senior ship’s officers, were kept busy touring the towns and country districts, thanking the local bodies for their personal interest in the OTAGO. A crowded week was thus spent at Dunedin, one of the highlights of which was a visit from His Excellency the Governor-General. A few days at the ship’s homeport of Auckland followed, part of which was spent acting as guard ship for the Auckland Regatta. On 6 February the OTAGO wore the flag of the Chief of the Naval Staff when attending the Treaty of Waitangi celebrations in the Bay of Islands. On conclusion the ship returned to Auckland and the ship’s company, some of whom had been abroad for over a year, proceeded on well earned leave.

(iii) HMNZS TARANAKI
After successfully completing her acceptance trials HMNZS TARANAKI was commissioned at Cowes, Isle of Wight, on 28 March 1961.

(iv) HMNZS ROTOITI
HMNZS ROTOITI served on the Far East Station from April 1960 to February 1961, when she was relieved by HMNZS ROYALIST. During this time a busy and instructive programme included exercising with ships of the SEA TO navies in exercise “Sea Lion”, 28 April 13 May 1960, and intensive training with other Commonwealth ships, submarines, and aircraft based at Singapore. The hard work and long periods at sea were occasionally relieved by visits to ports other than Singapore, which included Hong Kong, Tokyo, Manila, and Bangkok. Though these visits were in company with ships of the Royal Navy, care was taken to preserve the national identity of the New Zealand ship, and there is no doubt that much good will accrues from these visits to Commonwealth and foreign ports.

Calling at Noumea on the way home, the ROTOITI arrived in Auckland on 9 March 1961 after almost exactly one year away, and the ship’s company was sent on leave.

(v) HMNZS PUKAKI
HMNZS PUKAKI returned from the Far East Station in May 1960, upon being relieved by HMNZS ROTOITI. A period of leave was followed by an extended refit lasting from October 1960 to April 1961, during which the ship has been extensively modernised, with particular emphasis being given to the accommodation for the ship’s company.

(vi) HMNZS KANIERE
HMNZS KANIERE spent the period April to August providing afloat training for junior ratings. The majority of this training was carried out in the Auckland area, but in May and June a seven-week training cruise was undertaken which included visits to Tonga, Samoa, and the Fiji Islands. In September and October the KANIERE participated in joint A/S exercises in the Auckland area with HM Submarine ANCHORITE and two visiting destroyers from the Far East Station HM Ships CAVENDISH and CARYSFORT. The remainder of the year was devoted to volunteer reserve training cruises being made from Auckland, Wellington, Lyttelton, and Dunedin with up to 50 reservists at a time embarked for one to two weeks sea training.

On 22 December 1960 the ship was paid off into extended reserve to replace TAUPO as the alongside training ship for HMNZS PHILOMEL. The role of this ship is to provide initial training for engineering mechanics in the operation and maintenance of boilers and auxiliary machinery under “classroom” conditions and so reduce training problems in operational ships. The fitting of a light hydraulically operated gun mounting will provide similar facilities for armourer ratings. In this role she provides “live” training for engineering mechanics in flashing up boilers and running and maintaining auxiliary machinery. Fitting of a pom-pom mounting will also allow ordnance ratings to be trained. In addition some mess decks have been converted into classrooms and the workshops are also in use.

(vii) HMNZS LACHLAN
HMNZS LACHLAN, assisted by HMNZ surveying motor launch TARAPUNGA, completed a priority survey of the approaches to Tauranga between Mayor Island and Town Point. This was at the request of various overseas and national shipping interests who were concerned at reports of uncharted shoals and rocks in this area. Concurrently, the second surveying motor launch, TAKAPU completed a survey of Oamaru and the approaches thereto.

LACHLAN has since surveyed part of the large coastal sheet off Cape Egmont and, early in the New Year, examined a new submarine exercise area in the Hauraki Gulf.

In October the surveying motor launches were formed into a group under a Charge Surveyor, and now act as an independent unit responsible operationally to the Hydrographer, RNZN. At the beginning of their season these craft wire-swept rocks for least depth in the approaches to Tauranga and they have since been surveying the whole of the Manukau Harbour, including the bar and approaches. This task is nearing completion.

During August 1960 a small party from LACHLAN carried out extensive tidal stream observations in Bluff Harbour to assist in the planning of industrial and port development relating to the proposed aluminum-smelting industry. This work was done in cooperation with the Ministry of Works, Department of Lands and Survey, and Southland Harbour Board.

(viii) HMNZS ENDEAVOUR
HMNZS ENDEAVOUR again fulfilled her role of Antarctic support in the 1960-61 season. The ship has completed five round trips to McMurdo Sound since being acquired by the Government for Antarctic support and has amply justified the decision to purchase her. In addition she has carried out valuable oceanographic work each year in the winter season in both the South Pacific and Southern Ocean regions, as well as fulfilling more humdrum tasks such as ammunition dumping for the three services. However, in view of the age of the ship’s wooden hull it is no longer prudent to employ her in ice again.

(ix) FISHERY PROTECTION SQUADRON
In December 1960 the two motor launches comprising the Fishery Protection Squadron (HMNZS PAEA and HMNZS MAKO) were augmented by a third, named HMNZS MANGA. A direct result of this has been that while MANGA has maintained a patrol in the area between North Cape and East Cape the other two motor launches have been free to carry out a cruise circumnavigating both the North and South Islands. This venture has been undertaken with the full agreement and encouragement of the Marine Department who are of the opinion that it will have a beneficial effect on enforcement of the fisheries regulations. It is intended to’ arrange for the activities of the squadron to cover a wider field in the future

(x) RNZFA TUI
The RNZFA TUI has continued to contribute to the work of the Naval Research Laboratory, the value of which is recognised in the United States of America, as well as in Britain and Australia.

(xi) EXERCISES
(a) Biannual Joint Anti-submarine Exercises
These were held in September-October 1960, the next period being in April-May 1961. As well as aircraft of the RNZAF the ships taking part were HMNZS KANIERE, HM Ships CAVENDISH and CARYSFORT, and HM Submarine ANCHORITE. The value of these exercises and, indeed, the absolutely vital part they play in maintaining the efficiency of both naval and air anti-submarine forces cannot be overemphasized.

(b) RNZNVR Motor Launches
Advantage was taken of the Christmas holiday period to effect a concentration of the motor launches attached to the four RNZNVR Divisions in the Queen Charlotte Sounds area. Augmented by the fishery protection motor launch HMNZS MAKO they were formed into a squadron under the command of an officer of the RNZNVR, and for two weeks an ambitious and instructive series of exercises was carried out. It is hoped to make this an annual event.

(xii) HYDROGRAPHIC BRANCH
During the year ended 31 March 1961 four new charts (comprising two coastal sheets and two harbour plans) were published.

Maintenance of previously published charts continued to absorb an increasing amount of the productive capacity of the branch, one new edition, one large correction, and eight other charts being reprinted (with amendments incorporated) during the period. Additionally, five block corrections were published. “Notices to Mariners” originating in the branch (but published by the Marine Department) numbered 94. Several miscellaneous diagrams were also produced. Charts in preparation during the year (but not yet completed) numbered six. Sales of charts were again higher, 5,325 charts and 812 chart catalogues were sold, producing £2,565 in revenue. Service issues of charts (and catalogues) were approximately 1,200.

The move of the branch (in late 1960) to more spacious accommodation relieved a serious shortage of space but inevitably retarded production for a short time.

The lack of success in recruiting qualified staff continues to preclude full use being made of recent survey information.

SECTION Ill-NAVAL VISITS TO NEW ZEALAND
(i) VISITS OF DISTINGUISHED PERSONS
Shortly after his appointment as Commander-in-Chief, Far East Station, Vice-Admiral Sir David Luce, K.C.B., D.S.O., O.B.E., visited New Zealand for discussions with the Government and the Naval Board, in particular regarding New Zealand’s participation in the Strategic Reserve in South-East Asia.

In the course of a tour of the Far East area Lieutenant-General Sir Ian H. Riches, K.C.B., D.S.O., the Commandant-General, Royal Marines, paid an official visit to New Zealand in November 1960. To mark the end of 100 years of association between the Royal Marines and New Zealand presentations were made by Lieutenant-General Riches to the RNZN and the city of Auckland on behalf of the Royal Marines. A New Zealand coat of arms was presented to Lieutenant-General Riches, by the RNZN on behalf of the Government and people of New Zealand.

A visit of primary importance was that of the Chief of the United Kingdom Defence Staff, Admiral of the Fleet, the Right Honourable Earl Mountbatten of Burma. In the course of his visit discussions were held with the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Cabinet Defence Committee, as well as with the Naval Board.

(ii) COMMONWEALTH NAVIES
HM Submarine ANCHORITE, of the Fourth Submarine Squadron; was based at Auckland while engaged in combined anti-submarine exercises in New Zealand waters in September and October 1960. HM Ships CARYSFORT and CAVENDISH, of the Eighth Destroyer Squadron, also participated in these exercises, in the course of which they visited Auckland, and the CA VENDISH paid a visit to Wellington.

HMAS GASCOYNE, while on an oceanographic research cruise of Tasman and New Zealand waters, provided a valuable naval contribution to the Treaty of Waitangi celebrations. HMC Ships SUSSEXVALE, NEW GLASGOW, and BEACONHILL, Prestonian class frigates of the Fourth Canadian Escort Squadron, also took part in the Waitangi celebrations, after which they dispersed separately, to Lyttelton, Dunedin, and Port Taranaki for good-will visits. The squadron later re-formed in Port Nicholson to attend the Festival of Wellington. This visit from Canadian naval forces was greatly appreciated by naval personnel who have had little opportunity previously to meet and work with Canadian ships.

HMAS SWAN was a further naval unit, which attended the Festival of Wellington.
(iii) UNITS OF OTHER NAVIES
The nuclear submarine USS HALIBUT of the United States Pacific Fleet aroused considerable interest when she paid good-will visits to Auckland and Wellington.

The Netherlands anti-submarine destroyers, HNM Ships LIMBURG and GRONINGEN, visited Auckland in October 1960.

United States ships involved in operation “Deepfreeze” have continued to use Lyttelton as their main port of call and also visited Dunedin, Wellington, and Auckland for replenishment of stores, repair, and recreation.

SECTION IV-PERSONNEL
(i) OFFICERS
The strength and structure of the officer corps has been under critical study during the year as a result of the deliberations of the Officer Policy Planning Committee. The terms of reference of the committee cover all facets of the employment and careers of naval officers.

The past year has seen changes in the entry standards and training of cadets. The operating of modern ships demands high academic and professional attainments on the part of officers, and entry standards have been raised to one year’s post University Entrance study with emphasis on mathematics and physics.

Special Entry Cadets now train initially at the Royal Australian Naval College, Jervis Bay;, instead of proceeding direct to the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, and then together with cadet midshipmen, embark on midshipmen’s sea time in the fleet. Higher academic and professional training, tailored for the needs of the modern navy, is carried out at the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, and in other naval establishments in the United Kingdom.

(ii) RATINGS
At 31 March 1961 the total strength of male ratings was 2,480, of whom 227 were under preliminary training in New Zealand and the United Kingdom, leaving 2,253 trained ratings to man the fleet.

The further decline in total male strength of 49 in the last 12 months (compared with a decline of 81 in the preceding year) has accentuated long-standing manning problems. The majority of branches remain below strength.

The manning of HMNZS OTAGO and HMNZS TARANAKI was successfully accomplished during the year, specially chartered aircraft, used for the transportation of migrants to New Zealand, carrying some 250 officers and men to the United Kingdom in four flights.

With the departure of the Band of the Royal Marines from New Zealand during the year the number of RN personnel on loan to the RNZN was reduced from 19 to five.

A scheme of discharge by purchase on other than compassionate grounds was introduced during the year. Applications are reviewed quarterly in the light of the manning situation.

(iii) THE WOMEN’S ROYAL NEW ZEALAND NAVAL SERVICE
The year showed a further slight but definite decrease in the overall number of WRNZNS personnel. At 31 March 1961 there were seven officers and 76 ratings serving, this complement being about fifty-five per cent of the actual requirement.

Although the numbers recruited and entered during the year were the same as for the previous year the total entry did not offset the number discharged during the same period. The recruits entered, however, have been of good standard and have quickly taken their share of the work.

A very good standard of discipline has been maintained and the morale has remained at a high level.

(iv) RECRUITING
The total of new entries for the year under review was 243, which included nine ex RN personnel recruited in the United Kingdom and five ratings transferred from the Royal Navy on compassionate grounds.

The number of artificer apprentices entered was disappointing: nine, compared with 19 during the preceding 12 months.

Recruiting in the United Kingdom, which was terminated in 1958, was recommenced, but because of the conditions relating to entry and passage to New Zealand only nine ratings were entered.

The reprinting of recruiting material in a more attractive form, commenced last year, has now been virtually completed.

(v) HONOURS AND AWARDS
The following honours and awards to Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Naval Reserve, and Royal New Zealand Volunteer Reserve personnel were made during the year:
ROYAL NEW ZEALAND NAVY
British Empire Medal (Military Division)
Chief Petty Officer John Barker.
Chief Engineering Mechanic Thomas Arthur Hardy.
Chief Ordnance Artificer Samuel Harris.
Chief Petty Officer George Frederick Marshall
Chief Petty Officer Cook (s) Gerald Victor Baldwin Martin.
Chief Wren Maureen Margaret McCambridge.
Chief Electrical Artificer Robert Thomas Noble Moffat.

ROYAL NEW ZEALAND NAVAL RESERVE
Most Excellent Ordinary Commander of the Military Division of the Order of the British Empire
Captain Gillespie Hume Edwards.

ROYAL NEW ZEALAND NAVAL VOLUNTEER RESERVE
Ordinary Officer of the Military Division of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
Commander David Lennox Millar, V.R.D.

Ordinary Member of the Military Division of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
Temporary Lieutenant Commander (Sp) Frank James Glanville.
British Empire Medal (Military Division)
Chief Petty Officer Frederick Maurice Glasson.

(vi) HEALTH
The general health of the Royal New Zealand Navy has been good throughout the year. The total days sickness showed a decrease of 14 per cent on the previous year; a substantial improvement in time spent off duty.

One death is recorded from acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis, a rating from HMNZS IRIRANGI dying in Wanganui Public Hospital.

A total of 409 male candidates for entry were medically examined during the year, of whom 101 failed to reach the required standard. The largest single cause of rejection was failure to reach the minimum eyesight standard for the Seaman Branch.

There was an increase in the number of WRNZNS candidates medically examined; 54 out of 61 being assessed as fit for service.

The invaliding rate, though still undesirably high, was slightly less than for last year, as was the number discharged under the general heading of neuropsychiatry disorders.

The Medical Officer manning position remains serious; the fact that the Royal New Zealand Navy is attempting to give a service with a present effective strength of 14 per thousand is an indication of the difficulties that are experienced in meeting the normal service commitments

The visiting staff of the Royal New Zealand Naval Hospital was increased during the year by the appointment of a radiologist whose services are proving of considerable value.
Dental Officer manning remains satisfactory.

Bed space in the Royal New Zealand Naval Hospital is adequate for the present Fleet strength.

Equipment on the whole is most satisfactory, although replacement is now due of some items, which have been in continuous service since the war. With the installation of the new X-ray plant the Royal New Zealand Naval Hospital is now completely self sufficient for X-ray work.

(vii) EDUCATION
The difficulty mentioned in the last report of recruiting post-primary teachers, especially those with teaching qualifications in science and mathematics, has continued. It became clear during the year that the search for qualified teachers had to be extended outside New Zealand. Approval has now been obtained to enter suitable applicants from the United Kingdom.

Technical instruction demands an ever-increasing amount of teaching time and technical officers have been required to assist in the instruction of some of their own subjects. Unless Instructor Officers can be given the opportunity to gain experience on exchange service overseas the future may demand that more officers and ratings with technical qualifications and practical experience will be required to undertake this type of instruction.

Academic instruction followed the same pattern as previously, with the addition of one class which received instruction at a level in advance of University Entrance in certain subjects. It is confidently expected that these ratings will be the best prepared of any who have been sent from New Zealand to the Royal Navy for promotion courses to officer rank.

(viii) HOUSING
During 1960 the last contracts were let to complete the original housing programme of 403 units and, up to the end of March 1961, 11 units had been completed and handed over to Navy and the remaining 18 were in an advanced stage of construction.

The policy of constructing houses for naval personnel will progress as soon as land is available in amplification of the Government’s approval in principle to a new programme of 50 units.

(ix) SHORE ACCOMMODATION
For many years a very small proportion of vote “Defence Construction and Maintenance” has been allocated to Navy, but despite this fact the Naval Board has been able to make progress with some of its plans for housing and the development of the dockyard. However, it has not been possible to construct any new accommodation in shore establishments since the war.

The Naval Board desire has been to extend its works construction programme with a view to replacing some of the unsatisfactory accommodation, thus reducing the very large expenditure on maintenance of old wartime buildings.

With the increase in modern equipment in ships there is a corresponding reduction in living space afloat, which makes it even more important that new and adequate standards of accommodation be set ashore. To this end plans have been finalised for a new accommodation block at HMNZS PHILOMEL to accommodate 188 ratings in bunks instead of hammocks.

The accommodation at HMNZS IRIRANGI, the Naval W/T Station at Waiouru, consists of huts scattered over a large area. These huts were originally designed for use in the tropics and since sited at Waiouru have deteriorated to a point where, despite maintenance, they provide substandard accommodation. The Only practical step is to replace this accommodation, but commitments are such that this cannot be done with the allocation provided far this financial year. To undertake this work in addition to the Other essential projects it will be necessary for a much increased allocation out of the vote “Defence Construction”.

(x) CEREMONIAL
This year the Treaty ‘Of Waitangi ceremony was attended by ships of three Commonwealth countries. HMNZ Ships OTAGO, PAEA, and MAKO, HMAS GASCOYNE, and HM Canadian Ships SUSSEXVALE, NEW GLASGOW, and BEACONHILL.

SECTION V-TRAINING
(a) Basic
Basic training in the Royal New Zealand Navy has proceeded satisfactorily aver the last 12 months. A total of 292 ratings have received their initial training in HMNZS TAMAKI and HMNZS PHILOMEL prior to joining ships of the Fleet.

HMNZS TAMAKI continues to function as the new entry establishment of the Royal New Zealand Navy.

(i) WITHIN NEW ZEALAND
(b) Specialist
Technical training to a medium-skilled level has been carried out in New Zealand far the past three years. At this medium level it has proved generally satisfactory, but with certain specific limitations caused by lack of equipment and facilities.

Higher technical training has continued to be carried out overseas, mostly with the Royal Australian Navy.

During the financial year 848 Officers and ratings have undergone instruction in HMNZS PHILOMEL on courses of varying lengths.

(ii) OVERSEAS TRAINING
The training of Officer cadets and ratings promoted to officer rank from the lower deck continues to be undertaken in Australia and the United Kingdom. Certain higher technical training far ratings have to be undertaken overseas. This is due to the fact that the provision of the necessary training equipment to hold these courses in New Zealand would involve capital expenditure out of all proportion to the numbers of men to be trained.

(iii) ARTIFICER APPRENTICES TRAINING
At 31 March 1961, 72 artificer apprentices were under training of these, 44 were in Royal Navy establishments and 28 undergoing training in HMNZS PHILOMEL.

SECTION VI-NON-REGULAR RESERVES
(i) RESERVES
The strength of the reserves at 31 March 1961 totalled 714 officers and 3,486 ratings, including 120 officers and 374 ratings of the Royal New Zealand Naval Volunteer Reserve and 12 merchant navy officers serving with the Royal New Zealand Naval Reserve.

The approved strength of the RNZNVR is 600 ratings, and at present, 374 ratings are under training in the four divisions. Recruiting has been disappointing. The number of entries during the year has only balanced the number of discharges, which are mainly due to changes in civilian employment and place of residence. On the other hand, this reserve is attracting an excellent type of youth, and, as a whole, efficiency is at a high level. Annual sea training was carried out in HMNZ Ships KANIERE and ENDEAVOUR and HM Ships CAVENDISH and CARYSFORT. In addition five officers and 27 ratings were given extended training in HMNZ ships as part complement. The inactive reserves number 581 officers and 3,472 ratings. Of these reserves 1,370 are members of the Royal New Zealand Fleet Reserve, which is comprised of time-expired regulars who, in most cases, have a reserve liability until they reach the age of 40 years.

(ii) SEA CADET CORPS
The strength of the Sea Cadet Corps at 31 March 1961 totalled 57 officers and 1,132 cadets, and comprised 21 officers and 580 cadets from the school units and 36 officers and 552 cadets from the Navy League Cadets. Training of cadets continues to be carried out at a satisfactory level and a number of cadets were given sea training in HMNZS KANIERE. The Sea Cadet Corps continues to provide a number of candidates for entry into the RNZN and RNZNVR. The annual Sea Cadet camp was held at HMNZS TAMAKI during January and was attended by 11 officers and 225 cadets.

For the first time a Sea Cadet advancement course was held in HMNZS TAMAKI in May. The course was attended by 40 cadets and proved highly successful.

Two sea cadets attended the centenary of the United Kingdom cadet forces in July 1960 and one sea cadet attended the Indian Republic Day celebrations at New Delhi in January 1961.

It is proposed during the coming year to expand the Sea Cadet Corps to include new open and closed units outside the four main centres.

(iii) NAVAL RELATIONS OFFICERS
The Naval Service is represented in business communities by 25 honorary Naval Relations Officers in various towns and cities throughout New Zealand. These gentlemen, while preserving their connection in a practical way with the service in which they once served, provide valuable assistance in welfare work and recruiting.

SECTION VII-COMMUNICATIONS
(i) SHORE COMMUNICATIONS
The Royal New Zealand Navy has continued to play its part in the Commonwealth communication network in handling naval and, in conjunction with the Post Office, merchant shipping traffic.

The main tasks in this system are the provision of fixed services with Australia, Canada, and into the United States network, the provision of a multi-frequency broadcast to naval ships in the New Zealand naval area, and the reception of traffic from both merchant and naval shipping. The latter task is a responsibility, which is shared between the Post Office and the RNZN.

Traffic levels have increased at an overall rate of approximately 15 per cent per annum. Signal traffic received by shipping was 10 per cent higher than in the previous year. This is attributable in some degree to the satisfactory progress made during the year in the modernisation programme both at HMNZS IRIRANGI and the Naval Communication Centre, Wellington.

(ii) SHIP-BORNE COMMUNICATIONS
Ship-borne communications are at present undergoing a change from manual to automatic working. This is necessary in order that the RNZN can maintain operational compatibility with the other Commonwealth and allied navies with which New Zealand ships operate.

The majority of ships are now fitted with the new equipment, but the main emphasis in this modernisation programme has been placed on HMNZ ships proceeding to the Far East Station in order that their communications are fully up to date before their arrival at Singapore.

(iii) EXERCISE COMMUNICATIONS
Communications are a key factor in any walk of life today, and especially from a naval point of view. It is, therefore, vitally necessary to keep communication personnel in practice. This is done by continuous communication exercises.

Some reduction. in exercises by the Royal New Zealand Naval Volunteer Reserve communications staffs has had to be accepted while these ratings concentrated on learning the new automatic telegraphy systems. A summer cruise by the RNZNVR motor launches, however, provided the best experience available since the last war.

HMNZ ships attached to the Far East Station gained considerable benefit from the exercises in which they took part. The remaining ships rely largely upon the biannual submarine exercise operations and from harbour communication exercises.

SECTION VIII-HMNZ DOCKYARD

(i) GENERAL
The dockyard programme for the past year has been the most extensive for many years. For the first time two extended refits, each of five months, were carried out in the same year. The two ships concerned, HMNZ Ships ROYALIST and PUKAKI, absorbed a major part of HMNZ Dockyard effort and little remained to devote to other ships.

The Royal Navy submarine ANCHORITE was docked twice during the year for temporary repairs to damage sustained whilst on exercise in the Hauraki Gulf in August.

The Navy’s requirements for use of Calliope Dock have only been met by close cooperation with shipping companies. The OTAGO class frigates, with their additional underwater equipment, will increase Navy’s requirements for the dock still further.

The planning section instituted last year has done much to help the organisation and completion of refitting work during the very busy year.

(a) Major Vessels
(1) HMNZS ROYALIST was given the first major extended refit since modernisation in the United Kingdom in 1956. The refit included a hull survey, extensive repairs to inner bottom plating, and major overhaul of engineering, gunnery, electrical, and electronic equipment. Improvements to communication and other equipment were also effected.
(2) HMNZS PUKAKI was the second LOCH class frigate to be given an extended refit. Besides a complete hull survey and overhaul of machinery and equipment, improvements were effected to communications equipment, armament, and accommodation.
(3) HMNZ Ships KANIERE and LACHLAN were both docked for routine work during the year.

(ii) REFITS
(b) Minor Vessels
(1) ECHUCA. Modernisation has continued at low priority.
(2) KIAMA, STAWELL, INVERELL, and KIWI were docked for routine painting.
(3) HMNZS ENDEAVOUR was refitted to make her ready for another voyage to the Antarctic. The main deck was re-caulked; repairs and strengthening were carried out to bulkheads and the structure at the fore end. The main machinery and electrical equipment was overhauled and an additional electric generator fitted. As the ship will not be used in the Antarctic again the 1961 refit, commenced in March, is being limited to essential repairs.
(4) RNZFA TUI, the naval research vessel, was docked and given a short refit.
(5) The fishery protection launches MAKO and PAEA were slipped for routine overhauls. MANGA completed refit during the year and commenced service as the third fishery protection launch.
(6) The survey motor launches TAKAPU and TARAPUNGA and the Auckland RNZNVR launch NGAPONA were given routine slippings.

(c) Auxiliary Craft
In addition to routine maintenance on dockyard and HMNZS TAMAKI craft, one launch was given a major overhaul and strengthened to prolong its life. Similar work is proceeding on a further launch. The craft used for the TAMAKI boat service are beyond economical repair and will need to be replaced at an early date.

(iii) RESERVE FLEET
1. The Reserve Fleet now comprises seven ships, plus three ships awaiting disposal, categorised as follows:
(a) Operational Reserve
(i) A/S frigate HMNZS HAWEA.
(ii) Ocean minesweeper HMNZS KIAMA.
(iii) Ocean minesweeper HMNZS INVERELL.

(b) Supplementary Reserve
(i) Ocean minesweeper HMNZS ECHUCA.
(ii) Ocean minesweeper HMNZS STAWELL.
(iii) A/S trawler HMNZS KIWI.
(c) Extended Reserve
(i) Cruiser HMNZS BLACK PRINCE.
(ii) A/S frigate HMNZS TUTIRA.
(iii) A/S frigate HMNZS TAUPO.
(iv) A/S frigate HMNZS KANIERE.

2. State of Individual Ships
(a) HMNZS BLACK PRINCE, TAUPO, and TUTIRA are available for disposal, and instructions are awaited from Admiralty regarding BLACK PRINCE.
(b) HMNZS KANIERE has now replaced TAUPO as an alongside training ship for engineering mechanics.
(c) HMNZS HAWEA is being refitted. On completion she will be dehumidified and returned to operational reserve.
(d) KIAMA, INVERELL, and STAWELL are all cocooned, dehumidified, and cathodically protected. Internally the ships are in good condition with some external corrosion evident.
(e) ECHUCA is undergoing an extended refit and modernisation. Progress has been severely limited by the necessity to divert dockyard effort to maintenance of ships in commission.
(f) KIWI’s condition is deteriorating, as little maintenance has been possible.

3. Base Maintenance Party
A small naval force, consisting mainly of technical officers and ratings, has been formed in the Auckland command. It is responsible for the testing, tuning, and trials of weapons systems; for assistance to all sea-going units of the Fleet to cope with the increasing demand for specialised maintenance, and for certain Reserve Fleet tasks.

The Base Maintenance Party’s assistance to sea-going ships reduces considerably the proportion of a ship’s life, which has to be set aside for maintenance, and ensures that ship’s equipment and machinery is fully operational. As modern ships are added to the RNZN the composition and strength of this party will be altered to meet requirements.

(iv) MISCELLANEOUS WORK
Work has been undertaken for other Government Departments and private firms where the equipment to undertake such work is not available elsewhere.

(v) NAVAL STORE ORGANISATION
A modern mechanised system of stores accounting is currently being introduced. It will reduce the work of ships’ staffs and increase accuracy and efficiency in the main supply base.

The advent of OTAGO class frigates has greatly increased the range of stores required. The addition of these stores to those already held for LOCH class frigates sorely taxes the storage space available.

(vi) NAVAL ARMAMENT DEPOT
Preparations are in hand to provide facilities far the assembly and checking of guided missiles and the mare sophisticated types of torpedoes.

(vii) DOCKYARD DEVELOPMENT
There have been no major building operations in the dockyard during the past year. The modernisation of the dockside galley and wash places and the new dockside toilet block are both nearing completion.

Plans far the new combined machine shop and tool room, which is essential to the effective maintenance of OTAGO class frigate machinery, are in the final stages. This new shop is planned to provide facilities far refitting the complete machinery of the modem warship under the required conditions of adequate space, cleanliness, and extreme accuracy, which involves advanced techniques of dimensional inspection and metrolagy.

SECTION IX-DEPARTMENTAL ADMINISTRATION

(i) PUBLIC SERVICE STAFF
Although the shortage of junior administrative and clerical staff still prevails in Wellington a few cadets commenced their respective careers with Navy Department during the latter half of the year. The staffing position in the adult clerical groups has remained relatively stable, but overall there are still insufficient civilians available to fill all vacancies. This situation will continue until the civilian manpower position is adequate far all requirements.

Internal staff-training measures, which had lapsed to’ a certain extent during the preceding two years, are now in the fare once again, and a planned programme of staff training is being carried out far bath clerical and technical staff to’ give them a full appreciation of their role in the departmental organisation and to’ instruct supervisors in the art of supervision, job instruction, and control of staff.

(ii) DOCKYARD WORKMEN
With the arrival of HMNZS OTAGO, dockyard tradesmen and technicians have been required to have an increased and mare complex knowledge of refitting work, and although averse as courses have been arranged to enable these men to acquire the desired training there is still a shortage of trained personnel. It is imperative that this training be sustained. With an imminent large-scale recruiting campaign in the United Kingdom it is hoped that the depleted complement of the dockyard will be strengthened.

(iii) DOCKYARD APPRENTICES
At the close of the year there were 142 apprentices undergoing training in the dockyard. There are an increasing number of school leavers desiring to learn a trade, and hence the Department is able to select those applicants with higher educational qualifications.

It is gratifying to note that some 57 apprentices passed Trade Certification Board examination’s in 1960 and, in addition, 33 passes were gained by dockyard apprentices in Certificate of Engineering subjects, one of wham passed the final Certificate of Engineering Examination.

(iv). OFFICE ACCOMMODATION-WELLINGTON
The inadequacy of office accommodation in Navy Office was only slightly relieved last year by the detachment of one branch away from the main office. However, when Navy Office takes over part of the first floor of the Departmental Building later this year it is expected that the immediate accommodation problems will be further alleviated.